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Journal of International Translational Medicine
Journal of International Translational Medicine
JITM, ISSN 2227-6394
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Editor-in-chief:Feng Jifeng, China
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2014 Vol. 2, No. 4
Published: 08 December 2014

 
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Effect of Fluvastatin on Oxidation-reduction Function and ICAM-1 Expression in Pocine Carotid Artery Endothelial Cells Dealt with Hypoxia/Reoxygenation

Fukuda Daiju1, Sata Masataka1, Toshiyuki Hagiwara2, Kayoko Gomita2
Journal of International Translational Medicine, 2014, 2(4): 429-433 | doi:10.11910/2227-6394.2014.02.04.01
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  Objective: To explore the protective function of fluvastatin on endothelial cells in an ischemiareperfusion process. Methods: Pocine carotid artery endothelial cells (PCAEC) were cultured, grown together with different concentrations of fluvastatin (0.1 μmol/L, 0.2 μmol/L, 0.5 μmol/L, 1.0 μmol/L) for 44 h, and then divided into normal control group, different concentrations of fluvastatin groups and H/R group. Serum immunology and cell immunochemistry were used to detect the levels of methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) after 1-h hypoxia and 3-h reoxygenation. The effect of fluvastatin on oxidation-reduction function and ICAM-1 expression in PCAEC dealt with hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) was observed. Results: There was significant difference regarding the cell viability between H/R group intervened by 0.5 μmol/L of fluvastatin and simple H/R group (P=0.01). H/R could obviously decrease SOD activity in culture cells, and the generated MDA was conspicuously higher by comparison to fluvastatin group and normal control group (P=0.001). Significant differences were presented regarding GSH-PX level between normal control group, fluvastatin group and H/R group (P=0.002). Additionally, ICAM-1 cell immunochemical staining showed marked differences among each group (P=0.018). Conclusion: Proper concentration of fluvastatin can protect H/R endothelial cells.
       

Bcl-xl Expression and its Relationships with Clinical Pathological Characteristics, Expression of Estrogen and Progestogen Receptors in Breast Cancer Hot!

XU Guang-hui1, LI Yu1, ZHOU Li-na2
Journal of International Translational Medicine, 2014, 2(4): 434-438 | doi:10.11910/2227-6394.2014.02.04.02
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Objective:To explore an anti-apoptosis factor Bcl-xl expression and its relationships with clinical pathological characteristics, expression of estrogen and progestogen receptors in breast cancer. Methods:S-P immunohistochemical technique was used to detect the anti-apoptosis factor Bcl-xl expression and its relationships with tumor clinical pathological characteristics as well as expression of estrogen and progestogen receptors in 32 invasive breast cancer tissues, 32 tissues adjacent to cancer, 28 normal and 28 hyperplastic breast tissues. Results:Compared with the tissue adjacent to cancer, hyperplastic and normal breast tissues, Bcl-xl was over-expressed in breast cancer tissue (P<0.01). Bcl-xl expression in breast cancer tissue increased with the elevation of clinical staging and histological grading (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Its positive expression was higher in the breast cancer tissue with lymphatic metastasis than that in the breast cancer tissue without lymphatic metastasis (P<0.01). Additionally, Bcl-xl expression in breast cancer tissue was negatively associated with the expression of estrogen receptors (ER) and progestogen receptors (PR) (P<0.05). Conclusion: Bcl-xl expression in breast cancer tissue is associated with tumor staging, histological grading, presence or absence of lymphatic metastasis as well as ER and PR expression, which is of great importance in the occurrence and progression of breast cancer.
       

A Protective Effect of Ischemic Preconditioning on the Rat Lung Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

Sacit Coban1, Nurten Aksoy2, Muharrem Bitiren3
Journal of International Translational Medicine, 2014, 2(4): 439-442 | doi:10.11910/2227-6394.2014.02.04.03
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Objective: To investigate the protective effect and mechanism of ischemic preconditioning (IP) on the rat lung ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI).
Methods: Forty-five specific pathogen-free SD rats were randomly divided into Sham group (n=15), ischemia-reperfusion group (I/R group, n=15) and IP+IR group (n=15). All groups were dealt differently. The pathological changes and apoptosis of the lung tissue were observed, and its water content was measured. Additionally, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, malondialdehyde (MDA) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) concentrations in serum and lung tissue homogenate were detected.
Results: Compared with Sham group, the lung tissue lesions obviously became worse, apoptotic number, water content in the lung tissue, MDA and ET-1 concentrations in serum and lung tissue all increased significantly, while SOD activity decreased markedly in I/R group under a light microscope (P<0.01). By comparison to I/R group, the lung tissue lesions got better, apoptotic number, water content in the lung tissue, MDA and ET-1 concentrations in serum and lung tissue all decreased significantly, while SOD activity decreased markedly in IP+I/R group (P<0.01).
Conclusion: IP has a protective effect on IRI, and this effect may be related to activation of endogenous antioxidation, inactivation or reduction of oxygen free radicals and protection of pulmonary vascular endothelial injury.
       

Detection of Apoptotic Inhibitor Gene Survivin in Peripheral Blood of Patients with Esophageal Cancer by Real-time Fluorescence Quantitative PCR and its Clinical significance Hot!

CHEN Sheng
Journal of International Translational Medicine, 2014, 2(4): 443-447 | doi:10.11910/2227-6394.2014.02.04.04
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Objective: To explore the clinical significance of apoptotic inhibitor gene Survivin in peripheral blood of patients with esophageal cancer.
Methods: Real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR was used to detect the expression of Survivin mRNA in peripheral blood of 93 patients with benign and malignant esophageal lesions. The relationship of Survivin mRNA expression and clinicopathologic feature was observed.
Results: The expression of Survivin mRNA in peripheral blood which was associated with
differentiated degree and clinical staging was progressively increased from benign lesion to carcinoma in situ and invasive carcinoma.
Conclusion: The expression of Survivin mRNA in peripheral blood is significantly related to the genesis and progression of esophageal carcinoma. Real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR used to detect the expression of Survivin m-RNA in peripheral blood may be more convenient for diagnosing and guiding the treatment of esophageal carcinoma.
       

Pro-apoptosis Effect of Survivin T34A Mutant on Cancer Cells in Vitro and Vivo Hot!

SUN Jing, MA Lan, WU Hao, LIU Lian-ke*
Journal of International Translational Medicine, 2014, 2(4): 448-452 | doi:10.11910/2227-6394.2014.02.04.05
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Objective: To explore the pro-apoptosis effect of Survivin T34A mutant on cancer cells in vitro and vivo.
Methods:
After highly-metastasized breast cancer cells (4T1 cells) were transfected with Survivin T34A plasmid and wild survivin plasmid, cell proliferation was analyzed using tetrazolium blue (MTT) assay and apoptosis was detected with flow cytometry. In animal experiments, mice were vaccinated subcutaneously with 4T1 cells and treated with T34A plasmid and wild survivin plasmid. The tumor volume and weight, wet weight of the lung, number of pulmonary metastasis nodule were measured. H&E staining and TUNEL detection of tumor apoptosis were performed after mice were executed.
Results: The cell survival rate was significantly decreased (P<0.01) and apoptotic rate increased (P<0.01) after treatment with Survivin T34A plasmid in vitro. In vivo, 4 days after treatment, tumor volume was significantly smaller, mean tumor weight and mean wet weight of the lung were obviously lighter, and pulmonary metastasis nodule was evidently fewer (P<0.05). The apoptotic cells and large areas of necrosis were observed, and apoptotic index was increased (P<0.05).
Conclusion: Survivin T34A can induce the apoptosis of 4T1 cells with specificity and may become a new approach to breast cancer.

       

Study on 64-layer Spiral Computed Tomography Perfusion Imaging in Patients with Fatty Liver Hot!

RAO Xiao-hui1, SU Qi2, CAI Lei3, QIN Jia-sheng3, CAI Li-quan3, HONG He3, WANG Kang-hua3, AI Zhi-guo1, ZHANG Sheng1
Journal of International Translational Medicine, 2014, 2(4): 453-456 | doi:10.11910/2227-6394.2014.02.04.06
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Objective: To analyze the changes of hemodynamics of patients with fatty liver by detecting their blood perfusion parameter changes with Philips Brilliance 64-layer spiral computed tomography (CT) perfusion technique.
Methods: A total of 74 patients undergoing 64-layer spiral CT perfusion imaging were selected as study objects, in which 39 were with fatty liver and the other 35 were healthy people. The parameters of liver blood perfusion were observed.
Results: Hepatic arterial perfusion (Art.Perf), portal perfusion (Port.Perf) and total perfusion (Total.Perf) values as well as hepatic perfusion index (HPI) were (18.4±4.1), (71.5±14.2) and (93.2±6.7) mL/100 g·min as well as (25.15±5.22)% in control group, in which the Art.Perf, Port.Perf and Total.Perf were in close association with the severity of fatty liver and of great significance. Art.Perf of patients with mild, moderate and severe fatty liver was (15.4±4.0), (7.3±9.6) and (4.1±1.3) mL/100 g·min, Port.Perf was (56.5±10.7), (48.6±6.8) and (37.0±4.1) mL/100 g·min and Total.Perf was (71.3±5.7), (55.7±5.8) and (40.2±5.0) mL/100 g·min, respectively. However, HPI could not be considered as the evaluation index for the severity of fatty liver.
Conclusion: CT perfusion imaging of liver can reflect blood changes of patients with fatty liver, which can be used to evaluate their blood-supply condition, thus providing more diagnostic evidences for the clinic.
       

Influence of Decitabine on Demethylation of P15INK4B Gene and the Growth and Apoptosis of Burkitt Lymphoma Raji Cells

LIU Qiao
Journal of International Translational Medicine, 2014, 2(4): 457-461 | doi:10.11910/2227-6394.2014.02.04.07
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Objective: To explore the methylation status of P15INK4B gene and the biochemical influence of decitabine on the demethylation of P15INK4B gene and the growth and apoptosis of Burkitt lymphoma Raji cells.
Methods: Trypan blue was used to test the effects of different concentrations of decitabine on cell growth curve of Burkitt lymphoma Rajj cells. Cell apoptostic rate was detected by flow cytometry (FCM). The expression of P15INK4B gene was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and the degree of methylation of P15INK4B gene by methylation-specific PCR (MSP).
Results: Different concentrations of decitabine had an inhibiting effect on the proliferation of Raji cells, and promote the apoptosis of Raji cells. After 48-h treatment of decitabine, the mRNA expression of P15INK4B gene of Raji cells was up-regulated in a dose-dependent manner by inducing the demethylation of P15INK4B gene.    .    
Conclusion: There exists hypermethylated P15INK4B gene in Burkitt lymphoma Raji cells which makes P15INK4B gene down-regulated. However, decitabine can up-regulate the mRNA expression of P15INK4B gene through inducing the demethylation of P15INK4B gene, thus inhibiting the proliferation of lymphoma Raji cells.
       

Posterior Decompression, Lumber Interbody Fusion and Internal Fixation in the Treatment of Upper Lumbar Intervertebral Disc Herniation Hot!

DONG Zhan1, ZHU Yong-liang2*
Journal of International Translational Medicine, 2014, 2(4): 462-466 | doi:10.11910/2227-6394.2014.02.04.08
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 Objective: To assess the clinical outcomes of posterior decompression, interbody fusion and internal fixationfor the treatment of the upper lumbar intervertebral disc herniation.
Methods: Twelve patients with the upper lumbar intervertebral disc herniation were treated by posterior decompression, interbosy fusion and internal fixation. The time of the operation, the amount of bleeding and the clinical efficacy were evaluated.
Results: The time of operation was (143±36) min and the amount of bleeding during operation was (331.5±47.9) mL. There was no spinal cord and injuries, nerve injury, epidural damage and leakage of cerebrospinal fluid. All patients were followed up for 10~19 months with the average being 12.6 months. The functional scoring of Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) before the operation was (11.4±3.3) scores and final score after follow-up was (22.9±3.1) scores and there were statistical difference (P<0.01). Lumber interbody fusion of all patients completed successfully and the good rate after the operation was 91.7%.
Conclusion: Posterior decompression, interbody fusion and internal fixation for the treatment of the upper lumbar intervertebral disc herniation was characterized by full exposure, safety and significant efficacy.
       

Effect of Fluoxetine on Expression of Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor in Patients with Post-stroke Depression

DING Zhaosheng, ZHOU Fang, LIN Maming, WANG Yun
Journal of International Translational Medicine, 2014, 2(4): 467-471 | doi:10.11910/2227-6394.2014.02.04.09
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Objective: To observe the effect of Fluoxetine on the expression brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in patients with post-stroke depression (PSD).
Methods: A total of 62 patients with ischemic stroke and post depression were divided into PSD group (32 cases) given fluoxetine combined with rehabilitation and Non-PSD group (30 cases) given rehabilitation treatment according to the presence of depression after stroke. The degree of depression, activities of daily living and the motor function were evaluated by Hamilton Depression Scale 17 (HAMD-17), Modified Barthel Index (MBI) and Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA) before and after treatment, respectively. And the levels of BDNF were examined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).
Results: Before treatment, HAMD-17 score and MBI scores were markedly higher in PSD group than in Non-PSD group (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Compared with treatment before, HAMD-17 score decreased significantly, while FMA score increased markedly in PSD group after 3, 6 and 12-month treatment, and MBI score increased from the first-month treatment, and increased along with the time (P<0.05,P<0.01). In Non-PSD group, MBI and FMA scores increased from 1-month treatment and along with the time (P<0.05,P<0.01). Comparison between two groups showed that 12 months after treatment, there were no significant differences in HAMD-17, MBI and FMA scores (P>0.05). After 3, 6 and 12-month treatment, BDNF concentrations in PSD group were significantly higher than in Non-PSD group (P<0.01). Relevant analysis showed that BDNF in patients with PSD was in negative relationship with HAMD-17 (r=-0.784, P=0.000) and in positive association with BMI and FMA (r=0.761, P=0.000; r=0.789, P=0.000).
Conclusion: Fluoxetine combined with rehabilitation can regulate depression, improve motor function and activities of daily living through increasing the concentration of BNDF in treating PSD patients.
       

Experimental Study of Angeng Prescription for Climacteric Syndrome in Rats

CHEN Da-shuai1, LI Peng-li2, TAN Hai-zhi3
Journal of International Translational Medicine, 2014, 2(4): 472-475 | doi:10.11910/2227-6394.2014.02.04.10
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Objective: To observe the effect of Angeng Formula on climacteric syndrome in rats.
Methods: The ovaries of female SD rats were removed for the establishment of menopausal syndrome rat models. After drug delivery for 30 d, serum sex hormone levels and indexes of uterus, adrenal gland and pituitary were detected. Meanwhile, the effects of drugs on the histopathology of uterus, adrenal gland and pituitary in rats were observed.
Results: Angeng prescription could increase the level of estradiol (E2) in castrated rat (P<0.01) and had a tendency to increase the level of progestin (P), lower the level of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) as well as increase the indexes of the uterus and adrenal gland. Moreover, Angeng prescription could improve the pathologic condition of the uterus, adrenal gland and pituitary in castrated rats.
Conclusion: Angeng prescription has a therapeutic effect on climacteric syndrome, the mechanism of which might be related with the function of regulating sex hormone.
       

The Influence of Compound Shougong Powder on JAK2-STAT3 Signaling Pathway in Mice with Lewis Lung Cancer Hot!

SHEN Di1, LI Chong-hui2*
Journal of International Translational Medicine, 2014, 2(4): 476-481 | doi:10.11910/2227-6394.2014.02.04.11
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Objective: To observe the influence of Compound Shougong Powder on JAK2-STAT3 signaling pathway in mice with Lewis lung cancer.
Methods: Fifty C57BL/6J mice were inoculated with Lewis lung cancer cell line according to the conventional method, 40 mice bearing cancer successfully were selected 6 d later and randomly divided into 5groups, namely negative control group, cis-platinum group, high-dose Compound Shougong Powder group, middle-dose Compound Shougong Powder group and low-dose Compound Shougong Powder group, 8 mice in each group. Negative control group was drenched with normal saline (NS). Compound Shougong Powder groups were drenched with Compound Shougong Powder, 4 mg/kg for high-dose group, 2 mg/kg for middle-dose group, 1 mg/kg for low-dose group, once per day for 14 d; cis-platinum group was orally administrated 4 mg/kg/w, intraperitoneal injection of 0.1 mL for each, once per week for 2 weeks. Mice’s responses to the treatment, activity levels, mental states and so on during the treatment were observed, tumor inhibition rate was calculated, pathomorphological changes of tumor tissues were observed under light microscope after HE staining, and the expression levels of JAK2 and STAT3 proteins were detected by Western Blot.
Results: After drug administration, smooth, glossy body hair and good spirit were observed in cisplatin group and high-dose Compound Shougong Powder group; glossier body hair and less activity level in middle- and low- dose Compound Shougong Powder group, and great toxic and side effects, reduced activity level and weary spirit in negative control group. The tumor inhibition rate of cisplatin group, high-, middle- and low-dose Compound Shougong Powder group and negative control group was 57.69%, 53.53%, 48.40%, 38.46% and 38.46%, respectively. The expression levels of JAK2 and STAT3 proteins in drug groups showed decreases to different degrees, and the decreases of JAK2 were more significant.
Conclusion: Compound Shougong Powder can inhibit tumor growth and reduce the expression levels of JAK2 and STAT3 proteins in Lewis tumor cells, thus interdicting JAK2-STAT3 signaling pathway.
       

Furosemide Induced Electrolyte Imbalance: A Real Danger of Overdiuresis in Patients with Heart Failure

Yaseen Ali*, Amila M. Parekh*, Rahul K. Rao, Mirza R. Baig
Journal of International Translational Medicine, 2014, 2(4): 482-484 | doi:10.11910/2227-6394.2014.02.04.12
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Background: Chronic heart failure is one of the most common reasons for hospital admissions in the United States. There have been several approaches for treating heart failure but loop diuretics has been at the forefront to alleviate the symptoms. Loop diuretics have their own side effects as with any medication use, and a lesser known and monitored one is metabolic alkalosis. Case report: The patient was a 76 years old female with past medical history of diabetes, hypertension, chronic kidney disease, dyslipidemia and chronic heart failure who came to the hospital with progressive shortness of breath for the past few days and was started on aggressive diuresis with intravenous loop diuretics and well responded. On the morning of d 6 of her admission, she was kept on the floor and started on BIPAP to correct hypercarbia and respiratory acidosis due to metabolic alkalosis and back to baseline with normal mentation by the middle of the day. Conclusion: Hypokalemia due to the diuretic effect can cause alkalosis by resulting in the shift of hydrogen ions intracellularly, stimulating the apical H+/K+ ATPase in the collecting duct, stimulating renal ammonia genesis, reabsorption, and secretion, leading to impaired chloride ion reabsorption in the distal nephron and reducing the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). The patient improved after being started on oxygen therapy and switched to acetazolamide as an alternative diuretic, indicating that acetazolamide corrected the effect of metabolic alkalosis by causing metabolic acidosis due to decrease reclamation of bicarbonate at the level of proximal convoluted tubule.
       

Research Progress of Therapeutic Endoscopy in the Treatment of Pancreaticobiliary Disease

CAI Lei, CHENG Yuan, CAI Li-quan, PAN Ming-xin, GAO Yi
Journal of International Translational Medicine, 2014, 2(4): 485-490 | doi:10.11910/2227-6394.2014.02.04.13
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Pancreaticobiliary diseases, which include cholecystitis, choledocholithiasis, cholangitis, malignant biliary stricture, pancreatic pseudocyst and pancreatic cancer, hava increasing morbidity and mortality year by year and severely threatens human lives, for which there are many therapeutic methods in clinic. The promotion of endoscopic otomy and the development of new devices have greatly improved the successful rate of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatology (ERCP). Additionally, with the development of non-invasive diagnostic technique for pancreatic disease like magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography, ERCP can also be widely used in the treatment of pancreatic disease. Therefore, this study mainly reviewed the application of ERCP in the treatment of pancreaticobiliary diseases, hoping to improve the survival rate of patients and provide basis for the clinical treatment.
       

Current Evidence to Justify, and the Methodological Considerations for a Randomised Controlled Trial Testing the Hypothesis that Statins Prevent the Malignant Progression of Barrett's Oesophagus

David Thurtle1*, Leo Alexandre2, Yoon K Loke3, Ed Cheong4, Andrew Hart5
Journal of International Translational Medicine, 2014, 2(4): 491-497 | doi:10.11910/2227-6394.2014.02.04.14
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Barrett’s oesophagus is the predominant risk factor for oesophageal adenocarcinoma, a cancer whose incidence is increasing and which has a poor prognosis. This article reviews the latest experimental and epidemiological evidence justifying the development of a randomised controlled trial investigating the hypothesis that statins prevent the malignant progression of Barrett’s oesophagus, and explores the methodological considerations for such a trial. The experimental evidence suggests anti-carcinogenic properties of statins on oesophageal cancer cell lines, based on the inhibition of the mevalonate pathway and the production of pro-apoptotic proteins. The epidemiological evidence reports inverse associations between statin use and the incidence of oesophageal carcinoma in both general population and Barrett’s oesophagus cohorts. Such a randomised controlled trial would be a large multi-centre trial, probably investigating simvastatin, given the wide clinical experience with this drug, relatively low side-effect profile and low financial cost. As with any clinical trial, high adherence is important, which could be increased with therapy, patient, doctor and system-focussed interventions. We would suggest there is now sufficient evidence to justify a full clinical trial that attempts to prevent this aggressive cancer in a high-risk population.
       

Interpretation of Guideline for Diagnosis and Treatment of Dengue Fever Hot!

YE Zhen-hua, DU Fu-rong, YANG Xue, WU Yin-ping, YI Zi, CHEN Chong
Journal of International Translational Medicine, 2014, 2(4): 498-502 | doi:10.11910/2227-6394.2014.02.04.15
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