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Journal of International Translational Medicine
Journal of International Translational Medicine
JITM, ISSN 2227-6394
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Editor-in-chief:Feng Jifeng, China
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2015 Vol. 3, No. 3
Published: 09 July 2015

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Reversal Effect and Mechanisms of Recombinant Human Tumor Necrosis Factor-NC Against the Doxorubicin Resistance in Leukemia K562/Doxorubicin Cells

ZHOU Jing-hong1, CHEN Bo-hua2
Journal of International Translational Medicine, 2015, 3(3): 151-157 | doi:10.11910/2227-6394.2015.03.03.01
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To explore the reversal effect and mechanisms of recombinant human tumor necrosis factor-NC (rhTNF-NC) against the doxorubicin (Dox) resistance in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) K562/Dox cells. 
Methods: The chemo-sensitivity of tumor cells dealt with different concentrations of rhTNF-NC to Dox was detected by tetrazolium dye assay (MTT). The intra-cellular Dox accumulation represented by fluorescence intensity was determined by flow cytometry (FCM) at the excitation wave length of 488 nm and emission wave length of 550 nm. The expression of multidrug resistance (MDR)-related genes and proteins was analyzed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot assays. 
Results: After being exposed to gradually increasing concentrations of Dox for 10 consecutive months, K562/Dox cells were more resistant to Dox (nearly 132 times) than Dox-sensitive K562 cells. The IC50 of Dox for K562 and K562/Dox cells were (0.04±0.01) and (5.55±0.08) μmol/L, respectively. When K562/Dox cells were treated with rhTNF-NC at 500, 2 500 or 5 000U/mL, the IC50 of Dox was decreased to (2.22±0.34), (1.41±0.13) and (1.04±0.09) μmol/L, respectively. The concentration-response curves were moved upward by the treatment of rhTNF-NC (P<0.01). FCM analysis displayed that intra-cellular accumulation of Dox was significantly increased when combing Dox with rhTNF-NC. After treatment with rhTNF-NC, the expression of MDR gene (MDR1), MDR-associated protein (MRP), glutathione S transferase π (GSTπ) mRNA, P glycoprotein (P-gp) and protein kinase Cα (PKCα) protein was down-regulated, while topoisomerase II (TopoII) mRNA expression was up-regulated. 
Conclusion: rhTNF-NC can effectively augment the drug accumulation in tumor cells. This is due to the up-regulation of TopoIIα and down-regulation of MDR1, MRP and GSTπ at mRNA expression as well as reduction of P-gp and PKCα expression.

Clinical Study of Endostar Combined with DP Protocol in Treatment of Advanced Esophageal Cancer

DENG Wen-ying, LI Ning, LUO Su-xia*
Journal of International Translational Medicine, 2015, 3(3): 158-164 | doi:10.11910/2227-6394.2015.03.03.02
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Objective: To observe the clinical outcomes of Endostar combined with DP regimen for treating advanced esophageal cancer.
Methods: A total of 62 patients with advanced esophageal cancer admitted from May, 2011 to May, 2013 were enrolled for a prospective, randomized controlled trial and 2 cases were excluded from the study because of Ⅳ degree of digestive tract reaction and myelosuppression. Therefore, 60 cases could be evaluated, and then divided into combined group (given Endostar+DP plan) and single chemotherapy group, 30 cases in each group. The level of VEGF, tumor size and CT perfusion (CTP) parameters, including blood flow (BF), blood volume (BV), mean transit time (MTT), and permeability surface (PS) before and after treatment were determined for comparison. Kaplan-Merier method was used to analyze the overall survival (OS) of 2 groups.
Results: The efficacy of combined group was superior to single chemotherapy group. The level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in combined group was obviously lower than that in single chemotherapy group after treatment (P<0.01). Compared with treatment before in combined group, BF, BV and PS decreased while MTT increased after treatment (P<0.05). However, there were no significant differences in single chemotherapygroup before and after treatment (P>0.05). The median OS was 30 months (95%CI: 20.935-39.065) for combined group and 21 months (95%CI: 15.109-26.591) for single chemotherapy group, respectively (P=0.048). The 1-, 2- and 3-year survival rates were 86.2%, 59.3% and 36.6% in combined group, and 70.8%, 32.1% and 17.8% in single chemotherapy group, respectively.
Conclusion: Endostar can down-regulate the expression of VEGF, improve the state of hypertransfusion and high permeability of tumor vessels, has better curative effect without slighter adverse reactions, and prolong the survival time of patients with advanced esophageal cancer when combined with chemotherapy.

Study on Relationship between Differentiation and Autophagy of Glioma Stem/Progenitor Cells Hot!

WEI Zi-long1, ZHAO Yao-dong2, HUANG Qiang3, REN Li1*, SHA Long-gui1
Journal of International Translational Medicine, 2015, 3(3): 165-170 | doi:10.11910/2227-6394.2015.03.03.03
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Objective: To observe the changes of glioma stem/progenitor cells (GSPCs) before and after induction so as to explore the relationship between the differentiation and autophagy of GSPCs.
Methods: GSPCs were divided into 2 groups and cultured in stem cell culture medium and differentiation-induced culture medium [DMEM/F12 containing 10% fetal calf serum (FCS)], respectively. The latter was divided into experimental group added with autophagic inhibitor 3-MA with terminal concentration of 10 mM/L, and control group was free of any autophagic inhibitor. The culture solutions of both groups were changed every two days. The culture was ended on d7, and cellular morphology was observed. Immunofluorescence staining against microtubule-associated protein light chain-3 (LC3), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Western-blot method were used to detect the changes of autophagic activity before and after differentiation of GSPCs. Autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA) was added after differentiation was induced to observe its influence on GSPCs differentiation and activator rapamycin (RPM) was applied to make further detection.
Results: Autophagic activity of GSPCs was relatively low before GSPCs differentiation, but was increased after differentiation. GSPCs cultured in serum-containing medium for 7 d showed adherent growth, star-like or fusiform protractile convex-like structure, vesicle-like structure in proximal cytoplasm of the “convex” under microscope and punctiform distribution of LC3 in corresponding sites by immunological staining. Under TEM, there were obvious and typical autophagosomes in GSPCs differentiated cells. 3-MA could inhibit the adherence differentiation of GSPCs, and Western blot analysis showed that after the differentiation of GSPCs using 3-MA, expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and ammonium dihydrogen phosphate-2 (MAP-2) decreased significantly than that in control group. In addition, as to GSPCs cultured in serum-free medium, the concentration and action time of RPM had no obvious impact on their morphology, however, the ratio of GSPCs with adherent differentiation increased apparently when RPM concentration was 12.5 ng/mL.
Conclusion: Autophogy is in close association with differentiation of GSPCs, which means that increasing autophagy can improve differentiation whereas inhibiting autophagy can suppress the differentiation of GSPCs, and the autophagic activity of GSPCs is improved after inducing differentiation.

Methodological Establishment of HPLC-DAD for Determination of 10 Active Ingredients in Wuweizi Hot!

YAO Feng1, CHEN Da-shuai2*
Journal of International Translational Medicine, 2015, 3(3): 171-179 | doi:10.11910/2227-6394.2015.03.03.04
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Objective: To establish high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) method for the determination of active ingredients of multiple lignans in Nanwuweizi (Kadsura longepedunculata) and Beiwuweizi (Fructus Schisandrae Chinensis) so as to set up the standard for the quality control of Wuweizi (Schisandra chinensis).
Methods: Brava BDS C18 column (250 mm×4.6 mm, 5 μm) was applied, with detection condition as follows: column temperature: 30℃; mobile phase: water (A)-acetonitrile (B); gradient elution: 0.8 mL/min and detection wavelength: 225 nm.
Results: Ten ingredients in Beiwuweizi and 5 in Nanwuweizi were completely separately within 75 min. Peak area was in favorable linear relationship with concentration. In addition, the recovery rate was 96.87-103.29% and relative standard deviation (RSD) was 0.68-2.09%.
Conclusion: HPLC-DAD is simple and reliable with favorable repeatability, so it can be used for the determination of multiple lignans in Wuweizi.

Effect of Hematodialysis Combined with Hemoperfusion on Insulin Resistance and Nutritional Status of Patients with End-Stage Diabetic Nephropathy Hot!

Antony Raine, Daniel Cordonnier*, Eberhard Ritz
Journal of International Translational Medicine, 2015, 3(3): 180-184 | doi:10.11910/2227-6394.2015.03.03.05
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Objective: To explore the effect of hematodialysis (HD) combined with hemoperfusion (HP) on the insulin resistance (IR) and nutritional status of patients with end-stage diabetic nephropathy (ESDN).
Methods: Eighty-six patients with ESDN were randomly divided into group A (n=28), group B (n=30) and group C (n=28), and another 24 healthy volunteers were selected as control group. Groups A, B and C were respectively treated with routine HD, HD combined with hemodiafiltration (HDF) as well as HD combined with HP. The levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) as well as the changes ofurea nitrogen(Scr), fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting insulin (FINS), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (Homa-IR), hemoglobin (Hb), albumin (Alb) and body mass index (BMI) were compared among groups before and 12 weeks after treatment. (BUN), creatinine
Results: 12 weeks after treatment, the levels of CRP, TNF-α and IL-6 in group A did not change obviously, whereas those in groups B and C decreased dramatically when compared with treatment before (P<0.05 or P<0.01), in which the decreased range in group C was the most significant, but it was still higher than in control group (P<0.01). There was no statistical significance among three groups with regard to the levels of BUN and Scr before and 12 weeks after treatment (P>0.05). Compared with treatment before, FBG and FINS levels as well as Homa-IR reduced (P<0.05 or P<0.01), Hb, Alb and BMI elevated markedly in group C 12 weeks after treatment (P<0.01), while those in groups A and B did not change conspicuously (P>0.05). FBG, FINS and Homa-IR were all lower, but Hb, Alb and BMI were markedly higher in group C than in groups A and B 12 weeks after treatment, and significant differences were shown (P<0.05 or P<0.01).
Conclusion: HD combined with HP can effectively remove the mid- and macro-molecular inflammatory mediators in the patients with ESDN, alleviate IR and ameliorate the nutritional status to reduce the incidence of malnutrition.

Preparation and Property Recognition of Nimodipine Molecularly Imprinted Polymer Hot!

CHEN Fei-fei
Journal of International Translational Medicine, 2015, 3(3): 185-189 | doi:10.11910/2227-6394.2015.03.03.06
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Objective: To explore the application of molecular imprinting technique in the separation and detection of nimodipine.
Methods: Methacrylic acid as functional monomer, pentaerythritol triacrylate as cross-linking agent were used to prepare molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) with the feature of specific recognition performance on imprinting molecule nimodipine under condition of template molecule nimodipine. The preparation conditions, recognition performance of MIP on nimodipine, different proportions of template molecule and functional monomer, the selectivity to other substrate, and the relationship between adsorption quantity (Q) and time were observed.  
Results: MIP was prepared successfully bynimodipine as template and pentaerythritol triacrylate as cross-linking agent, with the feature of specific recognition performance on nimodipine. The static adsorption distribution coefficient (KD) was 0.2264. The equation of Q and the concentration of substrate of template MIP was y = -0.21x+0.2204. Combining capacity of template molecule at the same concentration enhanced with the increasing proportion of functional monomer.
Conclusion: Nimodipine MIP based on molecular imprinting technique may become a new approach to chiral separation for nimodipine.

Application of RP-HPLC in Detecting Content of Ferulic Acid in Fuke Qianjin Capsule

WANG Ming-zhi
Journal of International Translational Medicine, 2015, 3(3): 190-194 | doi:10.11910/2227-6394.2015.03.03.07
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Objective: To establish a method for the determination of ferulic acid content in Fuke Qianjin Capsule.
Methods: Reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) was applied in this study, with the detection conditions as follows: chromatographic column: Boston green ODS·min-1, detection wavelength: 316 nm, and column temperature: 30℃. C18 (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm), mobile phase: methanol-0.1% phosphoric acid (25:75), flow velocity: 1.0 mL
Results: Ferulic acid, whose sample size was 0.017760-0.10656 μg, was in favorable linear relationship with the integral value of peak area, with correlation coefficient r=0.9998. The average sample-injecting recovery rate and degree of precision (RSD) were 97.6% (n=6) and 1.6%, respectively. The results of this study also showed that the specificity of RP-HPLC in this study was excellent; negative samples had no interference on chromatographic peak of target substance (ferulic acid); and RSD of accuracy, repeatability, stability and recovery rate were 1.1%, 1.4%, 1.2% and 1.6%, respectively.
Conclusion: RP-HPLC is accurate, rapid, stable and convenient, so it can be used as an optimal method for the detection of ferulic acid content in Fuke Qianjin Capsule.

Analysis on Risk and Protective Factors Related to Premature Ovarian Failure

LI Peng-li*, WU Jing-wei
Journal of International Translational Medicine, 2015, 3(3): 195-199 | doi:10.11910/2227-6394.2015.03.03.08
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Objective: To investigate the risk and protective factors related to premature ovarian failure (POF).
Methods: A total of 168 patients with POF inFuning County Hospital of TCM were selected as POF group, and another 42 POF-free patients served as control group at the same term. The patients in both groups were inquired in details by investigators in the form of questionnaire, and the relevant risk questionnaires for POF and A-type behavior scale were filled. The risk and protective factors related to POF were analyzed after database was established via input of qualified raw data into 2007 Excel Table.
Results: The incidence of POF in patients at the age of 35-40 was dramatically higher than those at the age of 17-24, 25-29 and 30-34, and there existed statistical significance (P<0.01). No significant difference was presented between two groups in terms of age of menarche, menstrual cycle, menstrual period, dysmenorrhea and active smoking (P>0.05), but there was statistical significance by comparison to gravidity, times of artificial abortion, history of mumps, history of ovarian surgery, passive smoking, physical exercise, intake of bean products, sleep quality, A-type character and self-felt much stress (P<0.05). Multi-factor Logistic regression analysis further revealed that artificial abortion, history of mumps, passive smoking, poor sleep quality and A-type character were all independent risk factors for POF (OR=5.555, 3.906, 4.031, 3.723, 5.912), and physical exercise belonged to the protective factor for POF (OR=0.102).
Conclusion: Artificial abortion, history of mumps, passive smoking, poor sleep quality and A-type character pertain to risk factors for POF, and physical exercise to the protective factor for POF.

Clinical Outcomes of Intravenous rt-PA Thrombolysis Therapy for Advance-Aged Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke: A Multi-Center Clinical Study Hot!

LAI Ling-feng1, 2, 3*, WANG Yun1, 2, 3, BAI Zheng4, WANG Bao-rong4, LIU Hui-rong4
Journal of International Translational Medicine, 2015, 3(3): 200-203 | doi:10.11910/2227-6394.2015.03.03.09
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Background: Intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) thrombolysis therapy has been regarded as a promising therapeutic measure for acute ischemic stroke (AIS). But its effectiveness and safety are unclear because of the lack of large, long-term, prospective and multi-center clinical studies in China.
Objective: This study was to explore the efficacy of the therapy, and hypothesize some baseline clinical variables that might affect clinical outcomes.
Methods: All patients with AIS were treated by intravenous rt-PA thrombolysis within 4.5 h from stroke onset. The clinical records and laboratory data of pre- and post-treatment were statistically analyzed to testify the efficacy and safety of this treatment and to find out the independent prognostic factors.
Results: A total of 1 067 patients were selected in this study and divided into group A (<80 years old, n=769) and group B (≥80 years old, n=298). A favorable outcome was observed in 261 patients in group A and 81 patients in group B, respectively. A total of 6 factors were identified as independent prognostic factors for intravenous rt-PA thrombolysis therapy.
Conclusion: rt-PA thrombolysis therapy is effective in treating AIS patients, but there are multiple risk factors that affect prognosis.

Influence of Hemolysis on Analytic Results of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance-based Metabonomics Hot!

LIU Qiao
Journal of International Translational Medicine, 2015, 3(3): 204-208 | doi:10.11910/2227-6394.2015.03.03.10
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Objective: To explore the changes of small molecular metabolites and their content in plasma samples due to hemolysis so as to analyze the influence of hemolysis of plasma samples on metabonomic study.
Methods: Healthy adult males undergoing physical examination without drug administration history in recent period were selected to collect 10 hemolytic plasma samples and 10 hemolysis-free samples from them. Spectrograms of hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) were collected and Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) pulse sequence was used to inhibit the production of broad peak by protein and lipid, and SIMCA-P+12.0 software was applied to conduct mode recognition and Pearson correlation analysis.
Results: CPMG-1H NMR plasma metabolism spectrums showed that compared with hemolysis-free samples, hemolytic samples were evidently higher in the contents of acetate, acetone and pyruvic acid, but markedly lower in that of glucose. In addition, the chemical shift of glycine-CH2 in hemolysis group moved to the lower field. Orthogonal partial least-square discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) was further applied to initiate mode recognition analysis and the results demonstrated that hemolysis group was prominently higher in the contents of metabolites, such as leucine, valine, lysine, acetate, proline, acetone, pyruvic acid, creatine, creatinine, glycine, glycerol, serine and lactic acid, but obviously lower in the contents of isoleucine and glucose than hemolysis-free group. Pearson correlation analysis indicated that in hemolytic samples, the contents of eucine, valine, lysine, proline, N-acetyl-glycoprotein, creatine, creatinine, glycerol and serine were higher but that of isoleucine was lower.
Conclusion: Hemolysis can lead to the changes of multiple metabolite content and influence the analytic results of metabonomics, so in practical operation, hemolytic samples should be excluded from the study.

Analysis of Risk Factors for Recurrence and Metastasis in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma after Liver Transplantation

ZHANG Hua, WANG Wei*, GUAN Qin, ZHAI Zhen-guo, LI Xin
Journal of International Translational Medicine, 2015, 3(3): 209-213 | doi:10.11910/2227-6394.2015.03.03.11
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Objective: To investigate the features and risk factors for recurrence and metastasis in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after liver transplantation.
Methods: Totally 120 patients with HCC undergoing liver transplantation from Jan. 6th, 2012 to Jan. 6th, 2013 were collected from Shandong Chest Hospital. 10 patients were not followed up because of perioperative death, treatment abandoning due to disease deterioration or patients’ withdrawal from treatment. The other 110 patients were followed up. According to follow-up results and recurrence condition, patients were divided into group A (recurrent patients) and group B (non-recurrent patients). The features of recurrence and metastasis of HCC after transplantation were analyzed and concluded.
Results: Patients were followed up for 2-34 months and the median follow-up time was 16 months. 58 recurrent patients had 102 recurrent and metastatic sites, including 58 (56.86%) cases in lung, 25 (24.51%) cases in bone, 13 (12.75%) cases in graft liver, 2 (1.96%) cases in abdominal wall, 1 (0.98%) cases in brain, 2 (1.96%) cases in celiac lymph nodes and 1 (0.98%) cases in pleura. The recurrent time was 3-22 months after liver transplantation and the median time was 6.5 months. 29 patients recurred within 6 months, 18 patients recurred during 6-12 months, and 10 patients recurred after 12 months. The number of tumor, tumor diameter, TNM staging, level of alpha fetal protein (AFP) before liver transplantation and vascular invasion were the relevant factors for the recurrence of HCC after transplantation; The tumor diameter (>5 cm), level of AFP before liver transplantation (≥400 μg/L) andvascular invasion were the independent risk factors for the recurrence of HCC after liver transplantation.
Conclusion: Patients with vascular invasion, the diameter >5cm, the level of AFP ≥400 μg/L before operation but still higher than normal level within 3 months after operation are needed to be strictly monitored, and given anti-cancer treatment as early as possible if necessary.

Paraneoplastic Erythropoietin Secreting Tumor of Renal Origin: A Forgotten Endocrine Hormone

Yaseen Ali, Amila M. Parekh*, Rahul K. Rao, Taseen Ali, Jordan Garvey
Journal of International Translational Medicine, 2015, 3(3): 214-216 | doi:10.11910/2227-6394.2015.03.03.12
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Paraneoplastic syndromes are a group of disorders associated by the presence of cancer in the human body, but are not caused by the cancer or its metastatic potential. These syndromes are usually the result of cell mediators. For instance, the interleukins and cytokines secreted by the body’s defense system combat with neoplastic cells that inadvertently bind to cell specific receptors in the endocrine system due to similar structural morphology and produce undesired side effects. In this article, we presented an interesting case of a 44-year-old male veteran who came to our free clinic for his chronic constipation unmitigated by over the counter laxatives and sought other provider care in the past few months. During our brief clinic visit, his history and examination revealed that he had also been suffering from mild abdominal pain, decrease in appetite, inconvenient reddish plethoric facial appearance and lethargy. A careful review of the history, physical and laboratory examination revealed erythrocytosis and mild hypercalcemia. Meanwhile, a renal mass biopsy was proven to be erythropoietin secreting renal cell tumor. Subsequently, the patient underwent resection and was followed to complete resolution of his symptoms.

Action Mechanisms of MicroRNAs in Gastric Cancer and its Application in Translational Medicine

HUANG Xin-en
Journal of International Translational Medicine, 2015, 3(3): 217-222 | doi:10.11910/2227-6394.2015.03.03.13
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Translational medicine is a new concept proposed in the field of international medicine and emphasizes a two-sided way from bench to beside and from beside to bench. Gastric cancer is a commonly encountered malignant tumor in the digestive system all over the world, with high morbidity and mortality. Although its incidence is decreasing, the outcomes of this disease are among the poorest in all solid tumors. Therefore, it is very urgent to seek new preventive and therapeutic targets for gastric cancer and to make basic research results apply in clinic. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a classification of endogenous non-coding RNA with the function of regulating the expression of target genes. More and more studies have revealed that miRNAs are intimately associated with the occurrence, development, treatment and prognosis of gastric cancer. Therefore, this review provides an overview of the effects of miRNAs in gastric cancer on the cell cycle, apoptosis, invasion, metastasis, radiosensitivity and chemosensitivity.

Translational Medicine Study on Cardiac Microvascular Endothelial Barrier Function and Myocardial Ischemia/Re-perfusion Injury

Yeong Yeh Lee
Journal of International Translational Medicine, 2015, 3(3): 223-228 | doi:10.11910/2227-6394.2015.03.03.14
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Vascular endothelial barrier is defined as the ability of endothelial cells and their components that make up the microvascular wall structure in controlling the cellular components and marco-molecular substances in blood from penetrating vascular walls. It is the place for the selective exchange of oxygen, nutrients and metabolites, and has kernel effect in maintaining myocardial micro-environmental homeostasis. In clinic, microvascular permeability is commonly used as the index for evaluating endothelial barrier function. Myocardial microvascular endothelial cells, inter-endothelial connexin and basilar membrane (BM) interact synergically to constitute the basis for barrier function, which has a selective permeability effect on interaction between nutrient substances and other myocardial cell molecules. Increase of microvascular permeability is closely associated with cardiovascular events like coronary heart disease (CHD) and myocardial ischemia, and is the risk factor for CHD attack. And deep exploration of the mechanism of endothelial permeability and positive selection of new-type re-perfusion complementary drugs for alleviating endothelial permeability can be beneficial in improving the prognosis of patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Therefore, from the view of translational medicine, this study mainly summarized the increase of microvascular permeability and its pathological significance after AMI, physiological and pathological mechanisms of regulating microvascular permeability and complementary therapies for AMI re-perfusion as well as microvascular endothelial barrier function, hoping to provide a basis for improving the prognosis of patients with AMI.

Advances of Tumor Hyperthermia and Tumor Immunology in Translational Medicine

Hooshang Lahooti
Journal of International Translational Medicine, 2015, 3(3): 229-232 | doi:10.11910/2227-6394.2015.03.03.15
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Hyperthermia is another important method in the treatment of tumors, secondary to surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and biotherapy. It has been demonstrated the efficacy and versatility of hyperthermia in a lot of randomized trials across various primary cancers. Both heat shock proteins (HSPs) and dendritic cells (DCs) are greatly affected by hyperthermia and closely related to the tumor immunology. Nowadays, tumor hyperthermia and tumor immunology have been attached much attention in the field of translational medicine. In this article, the action mechanism and immunological effects of hyperthermia, activation of HSPs and DCs as well as HSP- and DC-based cancer vaccine were reviewed from the perspective of translational medicine.
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