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Journal of International Translational Medicine
Journal of International Translational Medicine
JITM, ISSN 2227-6394
founded in 2012
Editor-in-chief:Feng Jifeng, China
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2016 Vol. 4, No. 1
Published: 10 March 2016

 
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Interpretation of NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology: Cancer-Related Fatigue Hot!

YE Zhen-hua, DU Fu-rong, WU Yin-ping, YANG Xue, YI Zi
Journal of International Translational Medicine, 2016, 4(1): 1-8 | doi:10.11910/2227-6394.2016.04.01.01
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Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) is a distressing, persistent, subjective sense of physical, emotional, and/or cognitive tiredness or exhaustion related to cancer or cancer treatment that is not proportional to recent activity and interferes with usual functioning. It exerts deleterious effects on many aspects of the body, including physical, social, cognitive, and vocational functioning, and makes the patients or their relatives feel emotional and spiritual distress. Nevertheless, it is still under the way of diagnosis and treatment. Based on the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) Clinical Guidelines in Oncology-CRF (version 1. 2016), standards of care for CRF assessment and management, standards for evaluation and treatment and interventions for patients on active treatment were critically interpreted in this article.

       

Association Between Helycobacter Pylori Infection and Pathological Oral Manifestations Hot!

Carini Francesco, Leone Angelo, Di Pasquale Roberto, Sanfilippo Beatrice, Sinagra Emanuele, Damiani Provvidenza, Rosalyn Jurjus, Alice Gerges-Geagea, Inaya Hajj Hussein, Samir Mallat
Journal of International Translational Medicine, 2016, 4(1): 9-15 | doi:10.11910/2227-6394.2016.04.01. 02
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Data from the literature are controversial regarding the presence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in dental plaque and its association with gastric infection. One of the possible mechanisms suggested for re-infection is the recolonization with H. pylori from dental plaque. The purpose of this review was to determine whether dental plaque, poor oral hygiene, and periodontal disease were risk factors for H. pylori infection.

       

Relationship among Translational Medicine, Evidence-Based Medicine and Precision Medicine Hot!

HUANG Xin-en
Journal of International Translational Medicine, 2016, 4(1): 16-20 | doi:10.11910/2227-6394.2016.04.01.03
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Translational medicine is a new concept in international medical field. It integrates experimental research results and clinical guidance into the optimal implementation criteria for promoting the prediction, prevention and treatment of diseases. Based on people’s higher demand for medicine and health, appearance of translational medicine changes the mode of medical research.Evidence-based medicine (EBM) refers to cautious and accurate application of the current best research evidence and combination of the clinician’s professional skills and abundant clinical experience to consider the patients willing and value, consequently making the best diagnostic regimens for patients. Recently, some scholars have begun to question why the patients with the same diagnosis, course of disease and pathological condition have different efficacies and prognosis after treatment with the same drug. So far, an accurate answer cannot be given based on the research data of EBM to implement translational medicine. The concept of precision medicine is accepted gradually with the development of disease management model. In this study, practice and enlightenment of translational medicine, effect of EBM on translational medicine, EBM limitations as well as emergence and development trend of precision medicine were all reviewed in order to investigate the relationship among translational medicine, EBM and precision medicine.

       

Molecular Epidemiology and its Role in Translational Medicine Hot!

Yeong Yeh Lee
Journal of International Translational Medicine, 2016, 4(1): 21-27 | doi:10.11910/2227-6394.2016.04.01.04
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The primary definition of translational medicine is to develop new clinical therapeutic methods for the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of diseases by the therapeutic mechanism and new pathological cognition obtained in laboratory. Since the 21st century, most developed countries worldwide have made great adjustment in the strategies of translational medicine, but so far, only a few basic research results have been successfully translated into clinical practice. Research of translational medicine requires the team work of interdisciplinary groups, including medical experts, molecular biologists, and epidemiologists. With the rapid development of biological techniques and extensive application of molecular biology, epidemiology has become a real interdisciplinary discipline from conventional population survey, and stepped into genetic and molecular era, an era of molecular epidemiology. Molecular epidemiology not only provides research findings to translational medicine, but also bridges between basic science and medical research, so as to improve the effective translation of basic scientific results. This article, focusing on molecular epidemiology and translational medicine, mainly summarized the history and current status of translational medicine and emphatically interpreted the importance of molecular epidemiology to translational medicine.

       

Advances of Hepatic Fibrosis-Associated Serological Markers in the View of Translational Medicine

LIU Lin, ZHANG Jing, XIE Dong-hao, CUI Jian-wei
Journal of International Translational Medicine, 2016, 4(1): 28-35 | doi:10.11910/2227-6394.2016.04.01.05
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Hepatic fibrosis is the dysplasia of intra-hepatic fiber. The pathological outcome of various acute and chronic hepatic diseases marked by excessive deposition of extracellular matrix (EMC), and is an inevitable process of chronic hepatitis developing into liver cirrhosis and HCC. Translational medicine is the ultimate target of medical research, the specific reflection of technological innovation on combined road of production, knowledge and research, and the inevitable tendency of basic medicine translated into applicable medicine. How to change the massive information discovered in omics era into applicable techniques in clinic is a challenge urgent to be resolved, and is also critical to further improve the therapeutic efficacy of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The present hepatic fibrosis-associated serological markers include hyaluronic acid (HA), collagen, lominin (LN), matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their inhibitors (TIMPs) and transforming growth factors (TGF) β l. Though they are all associated with hepatic fibrosis, they have their own disadvantages. Ideal serological markers for hepatic fibrosis should have higher specificity, sensitivity and accuracy to liver. In recent years, with new advances achieved in the research of body protein level, metabolic level and immune response level, and some new potential hepatic fibrosis-associated serological markers have been discovered, which are expected to improve the diagnosis of hepatic fibrosis. This study, in the view of translational medicine, mainly summarized the serological markers like HA and collagen, hoping to provide clinical references for the prevention and treatment of hepatic fibrosis and the prevention of HCC.

       

Study on Translational Medicine of RUNX3 Expression in Oral Precancerous Lesions and Squamous Cell Carcinoma Hot!

Ramamurthy Mustafa, Shabil Mohamed Rajaraman
Journal of International Translational Medicine, 2016, 4(1): 36-40 | doi:10.11910/2227-6394.2016.04.01.06
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Objective: To explore the expression and distribution characteristics of RUNX3 in the pathological process of oralsquamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) as well as its correlation with clinicopathological features. 
Methods: Fifteen cases of normal oral mucosal tissues, 37 cases of OSCC tissues and 21 cases of precancerous lesion tissues were respectively collected. The expression and distribution characteristics of RUNX3 were detected using immunohistochemical method, and its relationship with each clinicopathological feature of OSCC was analyzed. 
Results: The positive rates of RUNX3 expression in normal oral mucosal tissues, precancerous lesion tissues and OSCC tissues were 100% (15/15), 95.24% (20/21) and 54.05% (20/37), and their average optical densities were (0.391±0.07), (0.369±0.03) and (0.263±0.01), respectively. The differences were statistically significant by comparison to the positive rates of RUNX3 expression and their average optical densities in normal oral mucosal tissue, precancerous lesion tissue and OSCC tissue (P<0.01). There was no statistical significance regarding RUNX3 expression in the patients with different gender, age and presence or absence of lymph node metastasis (P>0.05), but the difference was statistically significant among the patients with different pathological gradings (P=0.012). 
Conclusion: The expression of RUNX3 in normal oral mucosal tissues, precancerous lesion tissues and OSCC tissues gradually shows a down-regulating tendency and its frequency of abnormal localization is on the rise. The expression of RUNX3 is closely associated with the degree of histological differentiation. All of these findings indicate that RUNX3, an important action factor in the occurrence and progression of OSCC, can be considered as a key biological indicator for early diagnosis, judgment of malignant degree and prognostic monitoring.

       

Effect of Gene Polymorphism of Inflammatory Cytokines on Postoperative Prognosis of Patients with Coronary Heart Disease: A Study on Translational Medicine

SUN Bing-bing, GUO Ping, ZHAO Yulan
Journal of International Translational Medicine, 2016, 4(1): 41-45 | doi:10.11910/2227-6394.2016.04.01.07
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To explore the effect of gene polymorphism of inflammatory cytokines on the prognosis of patients with coronary atherosclerotic heart disease (coronary heart disease, CHD) after surgical treatment, and to provide individualized therapeutic evidence for CHD at gene level so as to promote the translational application of research achievements in CHD genetics. 
Methods: A total of 120 patients with CHD underwent off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCABG). The whole blood was drawn before surgery, and gene polymorphism of inflammatory cytokines was detected using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and gene sequencing. The plasma was respectively taken before and 4 h, 24 h and 72 h after surgery. The levels of inflammatory cytokines were all detected using Liquichip system. 
Results:
The levels of plasma interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8 and IL-10 increased after surgery and reached the peak 4 h after surgery. The levels of IL-8 and IL-10 decreased to the preoperative within 72 h after surgery, but that of IL-6 was still higher than surgery before. The level of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) began to decrease 4 h after surgery, but increased to the preoperative 72 h after surgery. There were 4 cases of GC and 116 cases of GG in IL-6 genotypes, 12 cases of AA, 67 cases of AT and 41 cases of TT in IL-8 genotypes, 4 cases of GG, 21 cases of AG and 95 cases of AA in IL-10 genotypes as well as 19 cases of AG and 101 cases of GG in TNF-α genotypes. 4 h after surgery, the levels of IL-6 in patients with IL-6-174GG genotype, IL-8 in patients with IL-8-251AA genotype and IL-10 in patients with IL-10-1082AA genotype were all significantly higher than those with other genotypes at the same time. No difference was statistically significant among different genotypes at other time points regarding the levels of inflammatory cytokines. The results of Logistic regression analysis indicated that the risk of postoperative ventilator-applied time >1 d and hospital stays >14 d increased in patients with AA in IL-8 genotypes. 
Inflammatory reaction in the body can be caused by surgical treatment for CHD, and the degree of postoperative inflammatory reaction and prognosis are associated with genetic background. The degree of postoperative inflammatory reaction aggravates in patients with IL-8-251AA genotype, and the prognosis is poor.

       

Expression of GPC3, MMP-9 and MMP-14 in Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Their Influence on the Prognosis of Patients

CAI Lei, WENG Jun, QIN Jia-sheng, HE Guo-lin, CHENG Yuan, ZHANG Bin-bin, LIU Zhao-yuan, JIA Zhi-dong, WANG Gao-shang, FU Chao-yi, PAN Ming-xin, GAO Yi
Journal of International Translational Medicine, 2016, 4(1): 46-50 | doi:10.11910/2227-6394.2016.04.01.08
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Objective: To explore the expression of glypican-3 (GPC3), metal matrix proteinase (MMP)-9

Methods: Totally 112 paraffin-embedded tissue samples of HCC patients were selected as observation group and 70 normal tissue samples were as control group. The expressions of GPC3, MMP-9 and MMP-14 of two groups were detected using immunohistochemistry assay. The positive rates of two groups were calculated. The relationship between the expression of GPC3, MMP-9 and MMP-14 and clinicopathological features, and their influence on the survival time of HCC patients were compared.   
Results: The positive expression rates of GPC3, MMP-9 and MMP-14 were higher in observation group that those in control group, the differences were statistically significant (P=0.000; P=0.000; P=0.000). The expression of GPC3 had close relationship with tumor volume, differentiated degree, lymphatic metastasis, and PCNA expression. The expression of MMP-9 had close relationship with tumor volume, lymphatic metastasis, and vascular invasion. The expression of GPC3 had close relationship with tumor volume, differentiated degree, lymphatic metastasis, vascular invasion, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression.
Conclusion: GPC3, MMP-9 and MMP-14 are highly expressed in HCC patients, which shows poor prognosis. Therefore, the detection of GPC3, MMP-9 and MMP-14 after surgery has a certain value on assessment of the prognosis of HCC patients.

and MMP-14 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and their influence on the prognosis of HCC patients.  There were positive correlations between GPC3 and MMP-9 (r=0.538, P=0.042), MMP-9 and MMP-14 (r=0.430, P=0.024), and GPC3 and MMP-14Kaplan-Meier method showed that the expressions of GPC3, MMP-9 and MMP-14 were associated with the prognosis of HCC patients, and patients with high expressions of GPC3, MMP-9 and MMP-14 had poor prognosis. (r=0.563, P=0.563).

       

Ameliorative Effect and Its Mechanism of Forsythiaside on Learning and Memory of Composite Alzheimer’s Disease Model Mice

XIONG Yu-ping, TIAN Ya-jie
Journal of International Translational Medicine, 2016, 4(1): 51-57 | doi:10.11910/2227-6394.2016.04.01.09
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Objective: To explore the ameliorative effect of forsythiaside and its mechanism on learning and memory of composite Alzheimer’s disease (AD) model mice.

Methods: Fifty SAMP8 mice of 8 months old were randomly divided into negative control group (gavage of distilled water), positive control group (gavage of donepezil), low-, middle-, and high-dose groups (gavage of forsythiaside 60, 120, and 240 mg/kg, respectively), 10 cases for each group. Another 10 SAMR1 male mice of 8-month old were designed as blank control group (gavage of distilled water). After gavage for 30 consecutive days, Morris water maze test was used to conduct behavioral test 1 h after gavage everyday. 24 h after completing behavior test, the vitality of superoxide dismutase (SOD), acetylcholine esterase (AchE), choline acetyl transferase (ChAT), monoamine oxidase (MAO), and glutathion peroxidase (GSH-PX) as well as the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) in brain tissue of mice in each group were tested.  
Results: In water maze test, forsythiaside could improve the learning and memory ability of composite AD model mice. After being given different doses of forsythiaside for a long term, the activity of SOD, ChAT, and GSH-PX increased inordinately and the content of MDA and NO reduced in varying degrees in a dose-dependent manner. Of all, the high-dose forsythiaside group was the best in therapeutic effect.   
Conclusion: Forsythiaside has a therapeutic effect on the learning and memory impairment of composite AD model mice probably by regulating the mechanism of the cholinergic system and antioxygenation.  
       

Translational Medicine Study on Extraction and Determination of Urtica Polysaccharides and Their Anti-Oxidation Effect Hot!

JIANG Zhi-tao, LI Shan-shan, WANG Tong-fang, CHEN Xiao-feng
Journal of International Translational Medicine, 2016, 4(1): 58-63 | doi:10.11910/2227-6394.2016.04.01.10
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Objective: Translational medicine study on extraction and determination of urtica polysaccharides and their anti-oxidation effect.

Methods: Water-soluble alcohol sedimentation technique was used to extract the urtica polysaccharides, and ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometry was applied to determine their contents. The influence of polysaccharides on the activities of glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), malondialdéhyde (MDA) and superoxyde dismutase (SOD) in mice with H22-loaded tumors was observed.
Results: The purity of urtica polysaccharides was 61.39% after extraction and purification. After administration of high-, moderate- and low-dose urtica polysaccharides, the activity of serum GSH, CAT and SOD was markedly higher while MDA content was prominently lower in mice with H22-loaded tumors than those in model group.
Conclusion: Urtica polysaccharides can strengthen the anti-oxidation effect and inhibit the lipid peroxidation reaction in body.
       

Influence of Different-Frequency Glucocorticoid Induction on Morphological Structures of Humeri, Soft Tissues and Immune System in Rats

LI Jian-min, LI Heng
Journal of International Translational Medicine, 2016, 4(1): 64-69 | doi:10.11910/2227-6394.2016.04.01.11
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Objective: To explore the influence of different-frequency glucocorticoid (GC) induction on morphological structures of humeri and soft tissues as well as immune system in rats.

Methods: A total of 32 specific pathogen-free (SPF) SD rats at the age of 3 months were selected and randomly divided into 4 groups, 8 cases in each group. The rats in control group were not given any treatment, while those in low-, moderate- and high-frequency groups were treated with intramuscular injection of dexamethasone 1 mg/kg per time for twice, 4 times and 6 times per week, respectively. All the rats were sacrificed on d30 to measure their body mass and qualities of soft tissues and immune organs, and bone histomorphometry was applied to analyze humeral bone mass and bone structural changes.
Results: Compared with control group, there was no change in cancellous bone mass and bone structures of upper humeri in low-frequency group, but serious loss of bone mass, significantly degenerated bone structure, markedly reduced trabecular thickness and number as well as notably increased trabecular separation was all observed in moderate- and high-frequency groups. The size of cortical bones, total size of bone structure, thickness of cortical bones and size percentage of cortical bones in middle humeri reduced apparently, while the size percentage of medullary cavity increased dramatically in high-frequency group. Growth plate thickness of upper humeri decreased in low-, moderate- and high-frequency groups, and the diameters of mastocytes   diminished in moderate- and high-frequency groups. Compared with control group, body mass decreased obviously, qualities and indexes of spleen and thymus showed decreasing tendency along with the increase of drug administration frequency in low-, moderate- and high-frequency groups.
Conclusion: Low-frequency GC cannot change humeral morphology. The higher the frequency of drug administration is, the more the loss of cancellous bone mass is. When the frequency reaches to 6 times per week, the loss of cortical and cancellous bones is much severer. However, with the increase of drug administration frequency, thymic degeneration, splenic atrophy and immunosuppression can be induced. Therefore, the influence of different-frequency drug administration on bones and soft tissues in different locations as well as immune function should be fully considered and reasonable drug administration protocols should be designed for the establishment of SD rat models with osteoporosis.
       

Translational Study on Correlation Between Disturbance of Estrogen and Lipid Metabolism and Occurrence and Progression of Endometrial Adenocarcinoma

YU Cui-ge, HUANG Jian-feng, JIANG Xiang-yang
Journal of International Translational Medicine, 2016, 4(1): 70-74 | doi:10.11910/2227-6394.2016.04.01.12
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Objective: To explore the correlation between disturbance of estrogen and lipid metabolism and occurrence and progression of endometrial adenocarcinoma so as to seek the early-warning markers for endometrial adenocarcinoma.
Methods: Seventy-nine patients initially diagnosed as endometrial adenocarcinoma were collected as research group, and 70 healthy people with normal endometrium at the same term were as control group. The levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG), serum total triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), estradiol (E2), progesterone (P), testosterone (T) and fasting insulin (FINS) were all detected in two groups, and the risk factors of endometrial carcinoma were analyzed by non-conditional Logistic regression model.
Results: The age, body mass index (BMI), FINS and homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in research group were all higher than those in control group dramatically (P=0.0000). The level of HDL-C was significantly lower, while that of E2 was markedly higher in premenopausal patients in research group than in control group, and there was statistical significance (P=0.0000). The levels of TC, TG, LDL-C, E2 and T in menopausal patients were all higher, while that of HDL-C was lower in research group than in control group, and all the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05). The risk factors of endometrial adenocarcinoma included increase of BMI, E2, TG, and FIN as well as presence of HOMA-IR (OR=6.535, P=0.010; OR=7.796, P=0.011; OR=4.371, P=0.006; OR=6.392, P=0.020; OR=3.711, P=0.021).
Conclusion: Women with increase of BMI, E2, TG, and FIN as well as presence of HOMA-IR can be considered as a high-risk population for developing endometrial adenocarcinoma.

 
 
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