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Journal of International Translational Medicine
Journal of International Translational Medicine
JITM, ISSN 2227-6394
founded in 2012
Editor-in-chief:Feng Jifeng, China
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2016 Vol. 4, No. 3
Published: 10 September 2016

 
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Advances in Translational Medicine of Liver Regeneration-Associated Regulatory Factors

HAN Jin-bin, MA Cong, SHI Yan-qiong
Journal of International Translational Medicine, 2016, 4(3): 147-152 | doi:10.11910/2227-6394.2016.04.03.01
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The liver is an important organ that has strong regeneration and defensive ability in human body. The cell types participating in liver regeneration have close association with the severity of liver injury. When the liver is in mild injury, it mainly repairs the injury through the cellular proliferation of liver parenchyma, whereas when the liver is in severe injury complicated with liver cell aplasia, the liver tissues will launch stem cell proliferative responses. Liver cells and stem cells have different responses to injury, so there may be specific regulation of signal routines and factors. Translational medicine mainly guides clinical practice through basic research, which not only promotes the development of modern medicine, but also is the strong impetus that promotes the development of modern medicine. The application of translational medicine has greatly improved the therapeutic efficacy of liver surgery, liver cancer and liver transplantation around the world. This study mainly reviewed the advances in translational medicine of liver regeneration-associated regulatory factors, hoping to provide references for the clinical diagnosis and treatment of liver diseases.
       

Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Reproductive Function Hot!

LIU Kang-sheng, ZENG Yu, ZHENG Hang-peng, CHEN Ya-jun
Journal of International Translational Medicine, 2016, 4(3): 153-159 | doi:10.11910/2227-6394.2016.04.03.02
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Normal folding requires that unique conditions should be maintained within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumen, and nascent proteins are initially bound to Ca2+dependent chaperone proteins. Proteins synthesized in the ER are properly folded with the assistance of ER chaperones. misfolded proteins are disposed by ER-associated protein degradation. Accumulation of misfolded proteins in the ER triggers an adaptive ER stress response, which leads to activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR), a conserved pathway that transmits signals to restore homeostasis or eliminate the irreparably damaged cells. It has been shown that ER stress involves in pathophysiological development of many diseases, including neurological diseases. However, nowadays, a few studies have begun to focus on the possibility that the accumulation of misfolded proteins can also contribute to reproductive diseases. In this article, we mainly introduced the involvement of ER stress response in preimplantation embryos, placental development, intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and testicular germ cells so as to provide important insights for the molecular mechanisms of ER stress-induced apoptosis in reproductive diseases.
       

Current Status and Progression of Endocrinotherapy for Prostate Cancer in the View of Translational Medicine

QIAN Li-ya, MA Hai-ling, CHEN Xiao-feng, XIE Jun
Journal of International Translational Medicine, 2016, 4(3): 160-166 | doi:10.11910/2227-6394.2016.04.03.03
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Prostate cancer is a common malignant tumor in urological system. It is also the second leading cause of high morbidity and mortality among men in Western countries. The occurrence and development of prostate cancer is a multi-factor and multi-step process involving changes of numerous genes from the aspect of molecular genetics. In the last decades, translational medicine has discovered that numerous basic research specific to the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer has broaden the application prospect, especially endocrinotherapy, which is of great importance in the treatment of prostate cancer. This study mainly reviewed the mechanism, indications and therapeutic protocols of endocrinotherapy, including castration treatment, anti-androgen treatment, maximal androgen blockade (MAB), intermittent hormonal therapy (IHT), neoadjuvant hormonal therapy (NHT) and adjuvant hormonal therapy (AHT), aiming to provide references for the clinical treatment of prostate cancer.
       

Influence of Neoadjuvant CAF Chemotherapy on Serum TSGF, CA15-3 and CA125 in Patients with Breast Cancer Hot!

ZHAO Chang-xiao, DONG Li, ZHANG Jiang, Ren Yi
Journal of International Translational Medicine, 2016, 4(3): 167-171 | doi:10.11910/2227-6394.2016.04.03.04
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Objective: To investigate the influence of neoadjuvant CAF chemotherapy on serum tumor specific growth factor (TSGF), carbohydrate antigen15-3 (CA15-3), and CA125 in patients with breast cancer.
Methods: A total of 70 patients with breast cancer were selected and randomly divided into observation group and control group. Control group was conducted with conventional radical mastectomy but didn’t receive the chemotherapy intervention, while observation group was first given neoadjuvant chemotherapy (CAF regimen): intravenous injection of 500 mg/m2 cyclophosphamide and 500 mg/m2 5-fluorouracil on d1 and d8, intravenous injection of 30 mg/m2 adriamycin on d1, 21 d as one cycle, 2 cycles in total. The efficacy of two groups was evaluated after treatment. The levels of TSGF, CA153, and CA125 of two groups before, 4 weeks and 12 weeks after treatment were compared. And the correlation between TSGF and CA125, TSGF and CA153, CA125 and CA153 was analyzed.
Results: The overall response rate (ORR) and disease control rate (DCR) were higher in observation group (68.6% and 88.6%) than control group (42.6% and 72.3%), but only with the statistical difference in ORR between two groups (P<0.05). The levels of TSGF, CA153 and CA125 all decreased significantly in both groups after treatment compared with pretreatment, and observation group receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy before surgery decreased more significantly than control group after treatment (P<0.01). There was positive correlation between TSGF and CA125 (r=0.493, P=0.003), between TSGF and CA153 (r=0.625, P=0.000), between CA125 and CA153 (r=0.741, P=0.000). 
Conclusion: Neoadjuvant CAF chemotherapy has good effects on the treatment of patients with breast cancer, which may be related to the influence of neoadjuvant CAF chemotherapy on the levels of TSGF, CA153 and CA of patients.
       

The Expression and Significance of Interleukin-9, Interleukin-6 and Tumor Necrosis Factor-α in Colonic Mucosa of Patients with Ulcerative Colitis Hot!

QU Dong-dong, JIN Shi-lu, LIU Bao-zhen, ZHANG Jian, XUE Chun-xia
Journal of International Translational Medicine, 2016, 4(3): 172-178 | doi:10.11910/2227-6394.2016.04.03.05
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Objective: To investigate the expression and significance of interleukin (IL)-9, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in colonic mucosa of patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). 
Methods: The expression levels of IL-9, IL-6 and TNF-α in colonic mucosa were detected by immunohistochemistry in 60 patients with UC (38 with mild UC and 22 with moderate-severe UC), and in 20 controls. To explore whether there were some influence from the age and gender, we further divided these 60 patients into <20 years group, 20-49 years group, and >49 years.
Results: The percentage of positive cells of IL-9 in colonic mucosa of moderate-severe UC group was significantly higher than that in mild UC group (P<0.05), IL-9 of mild group was higher than that of control group (P<0.01), and the expression levels of IL-6 and TNF-α had the same tendency as that of IL-9. For UC patients, the percentage of IL-9 positive cells in 20-49 years old group (85.0%) was higher than that in ≤20 years group (0.0%) or ≥49 years group (58.8%), and significant differences were shown. The percentage of the TNF-α positive cells in moderate-severe UC group (81.8%) was higher than that in mild UC group (51.3%) (P<0.05), which was also evidently higher in mild group than that in control group (5.0%) (P<0.01). The percentage of TNF-α positive cells in 20-49 years UC group (75.0%) was higher than that in <20 years UC group (67.6%), and the difference was statistically significant. There was no significant difference in the percentage of IL-9, IL-6, and TNF-α positive cells between females (75.0%) and males (72.7%) (P>0.05). 
Conclusion: The expression levels of IL-9, IL-6 and TNF-α in colonic mucosa of UC are higher than those in the controls, and are all related to the severity of UC. It is speculated that IL-9, IL-6 and TNF-α play important roles in UC occurrence and development.

       

Study on the Influencing Factors of Blood Pressure Variability in Patients Undergoing Maintenance Hemodialysis

BAI Xiao-hui, PAN Rong-hua, ZHAO Yan-mei, WU Yue-lu, RUI Guo-hua
Journal of International Translational Medicine, 2016, 4(3): 179-184 | doi:10.11910/2227-6394.2016.04.03.06
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Objective: To investigate the influencing factors of blood pressure variability (BPV) in patients with maintenance hemodialysis (MHD), so as to improve the patients’ prognosis.
Methods: The clinical data of 107 MHD patients were retrospectively analyzed. According to intradialytic systolic pressure (SBP)-BPV, the patients were assigned into high SBP-BPV group (n=52) and low SBP-BPV group (n=55). According to intradialytic diastolic pressure (DBP)-BPV, they were divided into high DBP-BPV group (n=49) and low DBP-BPV group (n=58). The basic characteristics of patients in high and low SBP-BPV groups and DBP-BPV groups were compared, and the influencing factors of both SBP-BPV and DBP-BPV were also analyzed.
Results: The differences were statistically significant between high and low SBP-BPV groups by comparison to the age, dry weight, body mass index (BMI), dialysis age, interdialysis weight gain (IDWG) rate, pre-dialysis SBP, albumin (ALB), hemoglobin (Hb), total cholesterol (TC) and calcium-phosphorus product (P<0.05 or P<0.01). The differences were also statistically significant between high and low DBP-BPV groups by comparison to the age, dry weight, BMI, IDWG rate, pre-dialysis SBP and DBP, Hb and calcium-phosphorus product (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that SBP-BPV was positively correlated with the age, IDWG rate and pre-dialysis SBP (P=0.002, P=0.001, P=0.006), while negatively with Hb (P=0.021). They were all regarded as independent influencing factors of SBP-BPV. Both IDWG rate and pre-dialysis DBP were positively correlated with DBP-BPV (P=0.019, P=0.004), and could be considered as independent influencing factors of DBP-BPV.
Conclusion: Advanced age, increased IDWG%, pre-dialysis high SBP and decreased Hb are independent risk factors of SBP-BPV, and both increased IDWG rate and pre-dialysis high DBP are independent risk factors of DBP-BPV in intradialytic MHD patients. Pre-dialysis patients should positively control the weight gain and blood pressure, and ameliorate the nutritional status to stabilize intradialytic blood pressure, consequently improving the prognosis.
       

Antiviral Effects of Different Nucleos(t)ide Antiviral Drugs in Patients with Decompensated Hepatitis B Virus-Related Cirrhosis

CAI Lei, WENG Jun, FENG Lei
Journal of International Translational Medicine, 2016, 4(3): 185-190 | doi:10.11910/2227-6394.2016.04.03.07
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Objective: To explore antiviral effects of different nucleos(t)ide antiviral drugs in patients with decompensated hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related cirrhosis.
Methods: A total of 126 patients with decompensated HBV-related cirrhosis were selected and randomly divided into Group A, 42 cases, Group B, 42 cases, and Group C, 42 cases. All groups were treated with liver protection and symptomatic supportive treatment. Group A was added with lamivudine (LAM), Group B with adefovir dipivoxil (ADV), Group C with LAM and ADV. After 48-week treatment, changes of the liver function indexes, liver fibrosis indexes, and the conditions of virus replication and kidney damage were observed and compared among three groups.         
Results: Compared with pretreatment, the levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and total bilirubin (TBIL) showed a significant reduction (P<0.05), and were lower in Group C than Groups A and B (P<0.05), the levels of albumin (ALB) and cholinesterase (CHE) showed a marked increase in all groups after 48-week treatment (P<0.05), and were higher in Group C than Groups A and B (P<0.05). The HBV DNA copy number reduced significantly in all groups compared with pretreatment, and was the lowest in Group C, followed by Group A and Group B after treatment (P<0.05). The levels of hyaluronidase (HA), procollagen III (PCIII) and laminin (LN) showed a significant decrease after treatment (P<0.05), but there was no difference among three groups (P>0.05). The level of creatinine (Cr) was raised significantly in Group B after treatment, but the levels of Cr, BUN and eGFR in the other two groups didn’t change much after treatment (P>0.05). The normalizing rate of ALT, HBV-DNA negative conversion rate, and drug resistance were better in Group C than Groups A and B (P<0.05), but with no difference between Group A and Group B (P>0.05).
Conclusion: Use of different nucleos(t)ide antiviral drugs can improve the liver function and degree of the liver cirrhosis in patients with decompensated HBV-related cirrhosis to various extents, and the combined use of antiviral drugs has better antiviral effects.
 
       

Translational Study on the Relationships Between Body Mass Index, Levels of Serum Inflammatory Factors and Bronchial Asthma in Children

FANG Ding-zhu, LI Xiao-bin
Journal of International Translational Medicine, 2016, 4(3): 191-198 | doi:10.11910/2227-6394.2016.04.03.08
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Objective: To explore the relationships between body mass index (BMI), levels of serum inflammatory factors and bronchial asthma in children.
Methods: According to BMI, the enrolled 128 children with asthma in acute-outbreak period were assigned into obese group (n=29), skinny group (n=34) and control group (n=65). The children in three groups were all given routine treatment, including steroid aerosol, bronchodilators, fluid infusion and correction of acidosis, and returned visit after 4 weeks. The asthma control condition, levels of serum inflammatory factors, BMI and childhood asthma control test (C-ACT) scores were compared among three groups, and the relationships between C-ACT scores, BMI and levels of serum inflammatory factors were analyzed.
Results: Both completely and partially controlled rates were obviously lower in obese group and skinny group than in control group (P<0.05), but there was no statistical significance between obese group and skinny group (P>0.05). The levels of serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were all higher in obese group than in skinny group and control group, and these indicators above in skinny group were higher than those in control group. The differences were statistically significant (P<0.05 or P<0.01). C-ACT scores increased in sequence among obese group, skinny group and control group, and the differences were statistically significant between two any groups (P<0.01). Correlation analysis revealed that C-ACT scores had a significantly negative correlation with levels of hs-CRP, IL-6 and TNF-α (r=-0.856, P=0.000; r=-0.616, P=0.000; r=-0.296, P=0.001). BMI was not correlated with C-ACT scores and levels of hs-CRP, IL-6 and TNF-α (P>0.05).
Conclusion: Both obesity and emaciation can lead to increased levels of serum inflammatory factors in children with asthma, which is adverse to asthma control. Maintenance of normal body weight can effectively decrease the levels of serum inflammatory factors and improve asthma control rate.
       

The Value of Soluble CD146 in the Diagnosis of Ovarian Cancer

WANG Ya-qin, ZHANG Jun, WANG Huan-ying, ZHANG Hao-feng
Journal of International Translational Medicine, 2016, 4(3): 197-202 | doi:10.11910/2227-6394.2016.04.03.09
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Objective: To study the possible diagnostic value of soluble CD146 (sCD146) in patients with ovarian cancer.
Methods: A total of 33 patients with benign ovarian tumor and 30 with ovarian cancer from Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Anzhen Hospital were respectively selected as observation group A and observation group B, while 31 healthy women from Medical Center, Anzhen Hospital were served as control group. There was no significant difference in the age among three groups. Enzyme immunoassay and chemiluminescence were used to detect the expression of sCD146 and CA125, respectively. 
Results: The sCD146 level was lower in observation group A and observation group B when compared with control group (P<0.01). Moreover, serum sCD146 in observation group B was further lower than that in observation group A (P<0.05). The CA125 level increased in observation group B compared with those in control group and observation group A (P<0.001). And the CA125 level in observation group A was markedly higher than that in control group, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.001). If either single target was tested to be positive, it was advisable to choose combined detection of CA125 and sCD146, which could improve the diagnostic specificity.
Conclusion: sCD146 may provide a potential marker for the diagnosis and treatment of patients with ovarian cancer.

       

Clinical Features and Genetic Analysis of Tuberous Sclerosis Complex in a Chinese Family Caused by c.2677-2678del Mutation on TSC2 Gene Hot!

KE Lai-shun, JIANG Hua, QU Xiu-xiu, ZHENG De-quan, WU Xin-yu, LU Wu-sheng
Journal of International Translational Medicine, 2016, 4(3): 203-207 | doi:10.11910/2227-6394.2016.04.03.10
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The clinical data of patients from a Chinese family with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) were collected and the gene mutation type of TSC2 of proband in pedigree one was determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and direct genes sequencing. There were 2 cases with TSC in the family, both of whom had facial angiofibromas, one case with ungual fibromas, the other with mental retardation. The MRI and CT showed multiple intracranial nodules together. What’s more, gene mutation analysis of TSC2 demonstrated the c.2677-2678del mutation in both and the genetic manner deduced with autosomal dominant inheritance.
       

Interpretation on Expert Consensus for Diagnosis and Treatment of Melanoma in China

DU Fu-rong, WU Yin-ping, YANG Xue, YU Li-fang, YE Zhen-hua
Journal of International Translational Medicine, 2016, 4(3): 208-214 | doi:10.11910/2227-6394.2016.04.03.11
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In recent years, melanoma has become a tumor with the fastest increase of morbidity in all malignant tumors, and its annual increase is 3%-5%. Both morbidity and mortality of melanoma are low in China, but they are showing an increasing tendency in recent years. However, the morbidity of melanoma is increasing in most European and American countries, but the mortality keeps stable and is not in an increasing tendency along with the increasing morbidity, demonstrating that there are great differences between China and Western countries in the diagnosis and treatment of melanoma. At present, melanoma has become one of the diseases that severely threaten human health. Compared with other common malignant tumors, there are significant differences in the clinical diagnosis and specific treatment of melanoma. To better adapt the rapid development of treatment for melanoma, and to make the clinical practice of melanoma more specific and internationalized in China, Expert Committee on Melanoma, Chinese Society of Clinical Oncology, has updated the Guidelines for Diagnosis and Treatment of Melanoma in China. Therefore, the editorial board of this journal interpreted this guideline in details, aiming to provide the latest and most practical evidence-based evidence for clinical oncologists in China.
 
 
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