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Journal of International Translational Medicine
Journal of International Translational Medicine
JITM, ISSN 2227-6394
founded in 2012
Editor-in-chief:Feng Jifeng, China
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2017 Vol. 5, No. 2
Published: 21 June 2017

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A Resampling Approach for Sample Size Estimation in Animal Experiments Hot!

Lukas Gietz, Benjamin Mayer
Journal of International Translational Medicine, 2017, 5(2): 53-62 | doi:10.11910/2227-6394.2017.05.02.01
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A biometrical assessment of requested sample sizes in animal experiments is statutorily mandatory. The applicants have to declare by means of a biometrical report that the chosen sample size, per group as well as in total, is appropriate. An experiment should include as few animals as possible on the one hand, but also a large enough number of cases on the other hand in order to be able to detect actually existing effects. However, the validity of statistical sample size calculation is limited in animal studies for several reasons, and all of them are majorly concerned with a lack of available preparatory knowledge. This article is devoted to an application of resampling approaches, like bootstrapping, during the process of sample size calculation, and an assessment of their ability to decrease the required number of cases by a more precise appraisal of the assumable dispersion of the underlying data.


Comparison of the Efficacy and Safety of Pemetrexed-Based Versus Paclitaxel-Based Chemotherapy as Third-Line Treatment for Patients with Advanced Breast Cancer

QIAN Ting, HUANG Xin-en
Journal of International Translational Medicine, 2017, 5(2): 63-66 | doi:10.11910/2227-6394.2017.05.02.02
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Objective:To compare the efficacy and safety of pemetrexed-based with paclitaxel-based chemotherapy as third-line treatment for patients with advanced breast cancer. Methods: Between January 2009 and February 2016, 109 patients pathologically confirmed with advanced breast cancer in Jiangsu Cancer Hospital and Institute of Cancer Research were enrolled, and divided into group A (treated with pemetrexed-based regimen as third-line chemotherapy) and group B (treated with paclitaxel-based regimen as third-line chemotherapy). Other combined chemotherapeutic agents included lobaplatin (or carboplatin) and epirubicin. Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) was used to evaluate tumor responses.
Results: Comparison between group A (52 patients) and group B (57 patients) suggested that the total response rate (19.2% vs. 21.1%) and disease control rate (40.4% vs. 35.1%) were not statistically different (P>0.05). The incidence of adverse reactions such as leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, anemia, vomiting, increased alanine transaminase, and rash in group A was significantly fewer than that in group B (P<0.05).
Conclusion: Pemetrexed-based chemotherapy is as effective as paclitaxel-based chemotherapy in treating patients with advanced breast cancer, with acceptable adverse events.


Detection of Serum Anti-Müllerian Hormone Level for Women of Reproductive Age: A Cross-Sectional Study

MAO Xiao-dong, ZHE Yi, CHEN Ya-jun, LIU Kang-sheng
Journal of International Translational Medicine, 2017, 5(2): 67-70 | doi:10.11910/2227-6394.2017.05.02.03
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Backgrounds: Anti-müllerian hormone (AMH), a dimeric glycoprotein which is a member of the transforming growthfactor beta (TGF-b) superfamily, is produced by granulosa cells of primor-dial follicles that have undergone initial recruitment, and is thought to reflect the size and quality of the ovarian reserve. This study is to preliminarily investigate the utility of serum anti-müllerian hormone (AMH) detection during preconception care.
Methods: From May 2015 to October 2016, a total of 832 women of childbearing age (24-41 years) were screened and lab-tested at the Outpatient Department of Women Health, Nanjing Women and Children Health Hospital. The population was divided into three groups and the AMH level in each group was tested.
Results: The AMH levels in group A (24-30 years), group B (31-35 years), and group C (36-41 years) showed difference (P<0.05) and decreased gradually. The proportion with AMH level of <1.1 ng/mL in group C was significantly higher than that in group A and B (P<0.05). Infertile women made up 11.4% of all. The proportion of infertile women with AMH level of <1.1 ng/mL was significantly higher than that of fertile women (P<0.05). The serum AMH level had inverse correlation with age (r=-0.416, P<0.05), and no association with the levels of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and estrodiol (E2) (P>0.05).
Conclusion: For women with older childbearing age, the AMH level can be introduced to detect their latent decreased ovarian reserve (DOR) and optimize their childbearing plan.


Research Progress of MicroRNAs in Gastric Cancer

SHEN Bo, LU Jian-wei, ZHANG Yan, WU Yuan, YUAN Yuan, FENG Ji-feng
Journal of International Translational Medicine, 2017, 5(2): 71-79 | doi:10.11910/2227-6394.2017.05.02.04
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of short highly-conserved non-coding endogenous RNA molecules of 18-25 nucleotides in length. By incompletely or completely complementary to 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of mRNAs, miRNAs can suppress the transcription of target genes, and degrade mRNA. This article mainly reviewed the relevant research progress of miRNAs in gastric cancer. Abnormal miRNAs regulated by epigenetics participate in the proliferation, apoptosis, metastases and invasion of gastric cancer cells by regulating different target genes. In the meantime, NF-kB and AKT signal pathways highly associated with gastric cancer progression might be activated or inhibited by miRNAs. MiRNAs involving in change of drug resistance of tumor cells can provide new targets for the treatment of gastric cancer. Abnormal expression of miRNAs in the blood provides new biological markers for noninvasive diagnosis of gastric cancer. Moreover, miRNAs also participate in carcinogenic process of gastric cancer caused by helicobacter pylori (HP) infection. In conclusion, miRNAs play vital important roles in the occurrence, progression, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of gastric cancer, which provides new insight into gene therapy for gastric cancer.


Advances of PD-1/PD-L1 Inhibitors in Tumor Immunotherapy Hot!

LIU Yong-jun, ZHOU Yan
Journal of International Translational Medicine, 2017, 5(2): 80-85 | doi:10.11910/2227-6394.2017.05.02.05
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Tumor immunotherapy, as one of the most promising research directions in the present field of oncotherapy, inhibits and kills tumor cells by enhancing anti-tumor immunity of the body. PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors block negative control signals by inhibiting binding of PD-1 to its ligand PD-L1, leading to recovery of T cell activity and enhancement of immune response. In recent years, PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors have shown good therapeutic effects in multiple tumor immunotherapies, making patients obtain long-term tumor remission and with controlled toxic and side effects. This article mainly reviewed the action mechanism and current situation of PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors as well as their application effects in the treatment of various tumors.

Research Progress of Translational Medicine in Breast Cancer

TAN Mi-duo
Journal of International Translational Medicine, 2017, 5(2): 86-91 | doi:10.11910/2227-6394.2017.05.02.06
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Breast cancer is one of the most common malignancies and the most common causes of cancer-related deaths in women. And translational research in breast cancer has infiltrated into various aspects of breast cancer, such as screening of molecular markers, molecular subtyping and individualized treatment, molecular targeted treatment as well as prognostic assessment. Many achievements have been gained in recent years, such as anti-HER2 targeted therapy, molecular subtyping-guided clinical treatment, detection of multiple genes to predict the prognosis of breast cancer, etc. This article mainly reviewed the targeted therapy and individualized treatment for breast cancer, the facing problems as well as the importance of precision therapy in translational medical research on breast cancer.

Chimeric Antigen Receptor-Engineered T Cells in Tumor Immunotherapy: From Bench to Beside

Journal of International Translational Medicine, 2017, 5(2): 92-97 | doi:10.11910/2227-6394.2017.05.02.07
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Chimeric antigen receptor-engineered T cells (CAR-T cells), a classification of cultured T cells after modification of gene engineering technology, can recognize specific tumor antigens in a major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-independent manner, consequently leading to the activation of antitumor function. The recent studies have confirmed that a variety of tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) can act as target antigens for CAR-T cells. Nowadays, CAR T-cell therapy, one of the most potential tumor immunotherapies, has made great breakthroughs in hematological malignancies and promising outcomes in solid tumors. In this article, the biological characteristics and antitumor mechanism of CAR-T cells, and their application in tumor treatment were mainly reviewed.

Establishment of Proteogenomics and its Application in Translational Medicine

SUN Fei, LI Mengmeng, ZHANG Yong-hua, LIU Lian-fang, XU Chun, PAN Ying-ying, JIANG Zhi-tao
Journal of International Translational Medicine, 2017, 5(2): 98-104 | doi:10.11910/2227-6394.2017.05.02.08
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The exploration of molecular mechanism for the occurrence and development of diseases using strategies of so-called omics and physiome from multiple aspects like genome, transcriptome, proteome and genetic phenotypes has become the developmental tendency in the fields of modern bioscience and medical science. In recent years, proteogenomics, a new analytic strategy which combines with the advantages of both genomics and proteomics, has emerged in response to the needs of the times. This more advantageous method for gene annotation has been applied and shown a broad prospect in numerous fields, such as allograft rejection, studies on occurrence and development mechanism of tumors, diagnosis of pathogenic microorganisms, and analysis of the susceptibility to endotoxin. It is believed that proteogenomics not only verifies the gene expression status and annotates the models of gene structure at protein level, but also helps update protein sequence database, so as to overcome the low analytic efficiency and high mistake rate of traditional genomic prediction or proteomics. This study mainly reviewed the modern technical methods of proteogenomics and its progression in medical study.

Research Progress of Intestinal Microbiota in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases

YE Shao-shun, RONG Fang
Journal of International Translational Medicine, 2017, 5(2): 105-110 | doi:10.11910/2227-6394.2017.05.02.09
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Inflammatory bowel disseases (IBD) are chronic recurrent diseases occurring in the gastrointestinal tract, mainly including ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease (CD). At present, the etiological factors and mechanism of IBD are still unclear yet. However, it is widely believed that IBD is caused by immune dysfunction, genetic factors, gut barrier dysfuction and dysbacteriosis, change of dietary structure, use of antibiotics, smoking, and environment. Studies suggest that breaking the accurate balance between host and intestinal microbiota in patients with IBD can trigger immuno-inflammatory responses in genetically susceptible individuals. Therefore, regulating intestinal microbiota disturbance and recovery of intestinal homeostasis between host and intestinal microbiota become a new treatment direction for IBD. This article mainly reviewed research progress of intestinal microbiota in pathogenetic mechanism and treatment of IBD.
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