A Resampling Approach for Sample Size Estimation in Animal Experiments Hot!
A biometrical assessment of requested sample sizes in animal experiments is statutorily mandatory. The applicants have to declare by means of a biometrical report that the chosen sample size, per group as well as in total, is appropriate. An experiment should include as few animals as possible on the one hand, but also a large enough number of cases on the other hand in order to be able to detect actually existing effects. However, the validity of statistical sample size calculation is limited in animal studies for several reasons, and all of them are majorly concerned with a lack of available preparatory knowledge. This article is devoted to an application of resampling approaches, like bootstrapping, during the process of sample size calculation, and an assessment of their ability to decrease the required number of cases by a more precise appraisal of the assumable dispersion of the underlying data.
Comparison of the Efficacy and Safety of Pemetrexed-Based Versus Paclitaxel-Based Chemotherapy as Third-Line Treatment for Patients with Advanced Breast Cancer
Objective:To compare the efficacy and safety of pemetrexed-based with paclitaxel-based chemotherapy as third-line treatment for patients with advanced breast cancer. Methods: Between January 2009 and February 2016, 109 patients pathologically confirmed with advanced breast cancer in Jiangsu Cancer Hospital and Institute of Cancer Research were enrolled, and divided into group A (treated with pemetrexed-based regimen as third-line chemotherapy) and group B (treated with paclitaxel-based regimen as third-line chemotherapy). Other combined chemotherapeutic agents included lobaplatin (or carboplatin) and epirubicin. Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) was used to evaluate tumor responses.
Results: Comparison between group A (52 patients) and group B (57 patients) suggested that the total response rate (19.2% vs. 21.1%) and disease control rate (40.4% vs. 35.1%) were not statistically different (P>0.05). The incidence of adverse reactions such as leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, anemia, vomiting, increased alanine transaminase, and rash in group A was significantly fewer than that in group B (P<0.05).
Conclusion: Pemetrexed-based chemotherapy is as effective as paclitaxel-based chemotherapy in treating patients with advanced breast cancer, with acceptable adverse events.
Detection of Serum Anti-Müllerian Hormone Level for Women of Reproductive Age: A Cross-Sectional Study
Backgrounds: Anti-müllerian hormone (AMH), a dimeric glycoprotein which is a member of the transforming growthfactor beta (TGF-b) superfamily, is produced by granulosa cells of primor-dial follicles that have undergone initial recruitment, and is thought to reflect the size and quality of the ovarian reserve. This study is to preliminarily investigate the utility of serum anti-müllerian hormone (AMH) detection during preconception care.
Methods: From May 2015 to October 2016, a total of 832 women of childbearing age (24-41 years) were screened and lab-tested at the Outpatient Department of Women Health, Nanjing Women and Children Health Hospital. The population was divided into three groups and the AMH level in each group was tested.
Results: The AMH levels in group A (24-30 years), group B (31-35 years), and group C (36-41 years) showed difference (P<0.05) and decreased gradually. The proportion with AMH level of <1.1 ng/mL in group C was significantly higher than that in group A and B (P<0.05). Infertile women made up 11.4% of all. The proportion of infertile women with AMH level of <1.1 ng/mL was significantly higher than that of fertile women (P<0.05). The serum AMH level had inverse correlation with age (r=-0.416, P<0.05), and no association with the levels of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and estrodiol (E2) (P>0.05).
Conclusion: For women with older childbearing age, the AMH level can be introduced to detect their latent decreased ovarian reserve (DOR) and optimize their childbearing plan.
Research Progress of MicroRNAs in Gastric Cancer
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of short highly-conserved non-coding endogenous RNA molecules of 18-25 nucleotides in length. By incompletely or completely complementary to 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of mRNAs, miRNAs can suppress the transcription of target genes, and degrade mRNA. This article mainly reviewed the relevant research progress of miRNAs in gastric cancer. Abnormal miRNAs regulated by epigenetics participate in the proliferation, apoptosis, metastases and invasion of gastric cancer cells by regulating different target genes. In the meantime, NF-kB and AKT signal pathways highly associated with gastric cancer progression might be activated or inhibited by miRNAs. MiRNAs involving in change of drug resistance of tumor cells can provide new targets for the treatment of gastric cancer. Abnormal expression of miRNAs in the blood provides new biological markers for noninvasive diagnosis of gastric cancer. Moreover, miRNAs also participate in carcinogenic process of gastric cancer caused by helicobacter pylori (HP) infection. In conclusion, miRNAs play vital important roles in the occurrence, progression, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of gastric cancer, which provides new insight into gene therapy for gastric cancer.
Advances of PD-1/PD-L1 Inhibitors in Tumor Immunotherapy Hot!
Research Progress of Translational Medicine in Breast Cancer
Chimeric Antigen Receptor-Engineered T Cells in Tumor Immunotherapy: From Bench to Beside
Establishment of Proteogenomics and its Application in Translational Medicine
Research Progress of Intestinal Microbiota in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases