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Journal of International Translational Medicine
Journal of International Translational Medicine
JITM, ISSN 2227-6394
founded in 2012
Editor-in-chief:Feng Jifeng, China
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2017 Vol. 5, No. 3
Published: 01 September 2017

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Advances in Epidemiology and Molecular Subtypes of Gastric Cancer

LI Meng-meng
Journal of International Translational Medicine, 2017, 5(3): 111-116 | doi:10.11910/2227-6394.2017.05.03.01
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Gastric cancer is one of the most common digestive cancers in clinic, with relatively high morbidity and mortality worldwide. Until now, the pathogenesis of gastric cancer is still unclear. The proposal of four new molecular subtypes for gastric cancer, namely microsatellite instability (MSI), EpsteinBarr virus (EBV), chromosomal instability (CIN) and genomically stable (GS), has supplemented the histopathological subtypes effectively. It not only shows the specifc genome characteristics of gastric cancer, but also is of great guiding signifcance in clinical selection of effective targeted treatment and in grouping of patients with gastric cancer. Studies on epidemiology and molecular subtypes of gastric cancer can provide specifc therapeutic protocols and advice for the treatment of this disease, which is of great clinical signifcance. This study mainly reviewed the advances in the epidemiological studies and the four molecular subtypes of gastric cancer, aiming to provide reference for the treatment of gastric cancer with different molecular subtypes.

Research Progress of Mechanism and Treatment of Neonatal Hypoxic-ischemic Encephalopathy

NI Yu-fei, GU Qiu-yan, LI Xiao-qin
Journal of International Translational Medicine, 2017, 5(3): 117-122 | doi:10.11910/2227-6394.2017.05.03.02
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Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a hypoxic-ischemic brain injury caused by hypoxia after perinatal asphyxia in neonates, and one of the major causes of neonatal death, lifelong neurological disability and cognitive dysfunction. Although the mechanisms of HIE are complex and still unclear, it generally holds that HIE has a relationship with acute inflammatory reaction and is regulated by multiple cytokines and neuromodulators. Presently, therapeutic hypothermia, in the light of the lower mortality and improvement of prognosis, becomes a standard of care in many medical institutes, but there are still neonates dead or disabled after treatment. Therefore, it is necessary to use hypothermia in combination with other new adjuvant therapies (such as anti-inflammatory cytokine) to improve the prognosis of neonatal HIE. Besides, glutamate receptor antagonist, calcium channel blockers, erythropoietin, and nerve growth factors also have certain therapeutic effects on neonatal HIE. Therefore, this review mainly focused on the mechanisms and treatments of HIE. Based on this, we hold that the future studies should concentrate on how to attenuate early brain injury and to improve the growth and differentiation of neuronal cells and non-neuronal cells, which is of great signifcance to prolong the therapeutic window of neuroprotection, promote long-term neural restoration and improve the prognosis.

Research Progress of Immunotherapy in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

SHAO Jian-nan
Journal of International Translational Medicine, 2017, 5(3): 123-128 | doi:10.11910/2227-6394.2017.05.03.03
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Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is the most common head and neck cancer in Southeast Asia and Southern China, for which simple radiotherapy or concurrent radiochemotherapy is a main treatment means, with good therapeutic effects. However, although local control rate and survival rate for NPC are improved, distant metastasis is still a main cause of treatment failure. In recent years, immunotherapy has become a focus in the field of cancer research and comprehensive treatment for cancer, and has obtained certain therapeutic effects in several tumors so far, such as melanin and lymphoma. Due to its advantages of high effcacy, good specifcity and less side effects, immunotherapy has become a new promising alternative treatment for patients with NPC. This review was mainly focused on research progress of immunotherapy in NPC, specifically including adoptive immune cell therapy, tumor vaccine, checkpoint inhibitor, and immune gene therapy.

c-MET Pathway and its Inhibitors in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Current Situation and Challenges Hot!

YAN Fei, YU Shao-rong, FENG Ji-feng
Journal of International Translational Medicine, 2017, 5(3): 129-134 | doi:10.11910/2227-6394.2017.05.03.04
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c-mesenchymal-epithelial transition (c-MET), a novel anti-tumor therapeutic target, is a receptor tyrosin kinase (RTK) that is normally activated by dimerization and transphosphorylation induced by its only ligand, hypatocyte growth factor (HGF). As a complicated and uniquesignaling pathway, c-MET plays a pivotal role in the development of normal tissue and tumorigenesis. Tumor growth and metastasis can be caused when disordered c-MET is abnormally activated. At present, c-MET inhibitors have been used to treat various solid tumors, especially to treat non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and have shown a defnite effcacy. Hence, in this article, the advances of c-MET and its inhibitors in NSCLC were reviewed.

Progress of Shenqi Fuzheng Injection as Adjuvant Therapy for Malignant Tumors Hot!

Journal of International Translational Medicine, 2017, 5(3): 135-139 | doi:10.11910/2227-6394.2017.05.03.05
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Tumor is a kind of common and frequently-occurring disease that severely impaires human lives and health. As is proposed in Required Readings for Medical Professions, “Accumulation of virus causes insuffcient healthy qi, and then results in invasion of evil qi into the body”. Tumor is caused by interaction of exogenous evil qi and pathogenic products in the body such as phlegm and blood stasis on the basis of healthy qi defciency and disharmony of viscera. Therefore, the condition of healthy qi is not only the key of the occurrence of tumor, but a decisive factor of the development and prognosis of the disease. At present, the main therapeutic approaches for malignant tumors are radiotherapy and chemotherapy. However, during the disease process, the healthy qi gradually decreases due to the consumption of malignant tumors and the injury caused by radiotherapy and chemotherapy. In recent years, taking advantages of traditional Chinese drugs such as Shenqi Fuzheng Injection in combination with radiotherapy or chemotherapy is an important approach for many clinical physicians to improve therapeutic effects and alleviate toxic and side effects induced by radiotherapy and chemotherapy. This study mainly reviewed the progress of mechanisms and application of Shenqi Fuzhen Injection in malignant tumors in recent years.

Advances in Translational Medicine of Basic Breast Cancer

LI Chao, LI Wei, WANG Jian, FAN Qiao-ling, LIN Ze-qi, ZHU Xiao
Journal of International Translational Medicine, 2017, 5(3): 140-146 | doi:10.11910/2227-6394.2017.05.03.06
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Breast cancer is one of the most common malignancies in women, and about 1 200 000 women are suffering from breast cancer all over the world annually, thus becoming the top one killer of female health. In recent years, with the rapid development of human genomics, proteomics and bioinformatics, various high-tech detection methods are emerging constantly, and a basic and clinical study results on breast cancer have emerged endlessly. Only if basic research can answer or resolve clinical problems can it be valuable, while translational medicine is just the bridge that connects basic research and clinical practice. Translational medicine is a bidirectional, open and circulatory scientific research and management system, aiming to promote the open cross fusion and cooperation of multidisciplinaries by establishing a bidirectional translational pathway between basic research and clinical practice, to break the barrier between basic research and clinical practice in order to guide the scientifc researchers to resolve clinical problems and conduct basic research for the targets, and to effciently promote the biomedicine-oriented basic research results to be transformed into drugs, instruments, methods, mechanisms and specifications that can be practically applied in clinic by circulating methods, so as to better serve for human health. This study mainly reviewed the concept of translational medicine, breast cancer-related molecular markers, and the individual therapeutic protocols and targeted therapies for breast cancer, hoping to provide reference for early diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer.

Application Progress of Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Hepatic Diseases

RAO Xiao-hui
Journal of International Translational Medicine, 2017, 5(3): 147-152 | doi:10.11910/2227-6394.2017.05.03.07
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Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs), which possess the potential to differentiate into functional hepatocytes in vitro and vivo under specific induction conditions and to restore injured liver, have become not only an important source of seed cells for cell therapy and tissue engineering, but also ideal targeted cells for gene therapy. However, the content of BM-MSCs is very low in bone marrow, less than 10% of total bone marrow nucleated cells. Moreover, it is easy to be aging and lost the potential of proliferation and differentiation. Therefore, how to maintain abundant cell proliferation and keep good differentiation potency as well to provide enough BM-MSCs with strong viability and homogeneous biological property for cell transplantation and tissue engineering has become a focus for scholars at home and abroad. In addition, induction condition and cultured condition for hepatic differentiation of BM-MSCs are also important for BM-MSCs transplantation in the treatment of hepatic diseases. In this paper, we focused on separation, purifcation, and in vitro and vivo culture of BM-MSCs as well as the role of BM-MSCs in hepatic diseases.

Anxiety and Depression in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Hot!

LU Dong-mei, MA Jun-peng, ZOU Shao-hong, LENG Qiu-ping, YANG Xiao-hong
Journal of International Translational Medicine, 2017, 5(3): 153-159 | doi:10.11910/2227-6394.2017.05.03.08
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Background: Anxiety and depression may have deleterious effects on patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the evidence underlying the increased risks of anxiety and depression in COPD patients in Xinjiang are poorly defned. This study aimed to investigate the burden and related factors of depression and anxiety among patients with COPD in Xinjiang.
Methods: The study included 62 patients with COPD, aged (64.48±9.83) years, 59 patients were hospitalized due to exacerbations, 3 patients were included due to periodically check-up in the hospital. Depression and anxiety in these patients were evaluated through the Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA) and Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD). Stepwise multiple regression analysis was used to evaluate the clinical characteristics correlated to depression and anxiety.
Results: The prevalences of depression and anxiety were higher (62.9% and 95.2%) in COPD patients in Xinjiang. Anxiety was more common in patients than depression. Respectively, the female population with COPD was differentiated from males by higher levels of depression score, female COPD patients were more strongly correlated with depression (correction for regression coeffcient: β=0.87; P=0.04). Patients received university education level were more likely to suffer the pain of anxiety (correction for regression coeffcient: β=0.61; P=0.002) than lower education level. In addition, patients with the average monthly income less than ¥1 000 was more likely to suffer both the pain of anxiety and depression (P<0.05).
Conclusion: This study showed the high prevalence of anxiety and depression in COPD patients in Xinjiang, even in the condition of moderate COPD in terms of FEV1%. Both anxiety and depression were correlated with the lower monthly income. Female COPD patients were more exposed to depression in this group. Patients with higher educational level tended to be correlated with anxiety. Screening tools may help recognition of anxiety and depression in COPD patients.

Interpretation of ACG Clinical Guideline: Treatment of Helicobacter pylori Infection Hot!

DONG Hao, JIN Shi-lu, MIAO De-li
Journal of International Translational Medicine, 2017, 5(3): 160-166 | doi:10.11910/2227-6394.2017.05.03.09
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Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is still one of the most common chronic bacterial infections that impacts human health. Great achievements have been made in the treatment of H. pylorinfection since the publication of clinical guidelines of American College of Gastroenterology (ACG) in 2007. H. pylori infection is often acquired in childhood, with unclear infectious pathways. High-risk infection factors include low social and economic status, more brothers and sisters, and parents with H. pylori infection (especially mothers involved). Before this guideline was compiled, a seminar on H. pylori infection related PICO was conducted, and methodologies in McMaster University were cooperated to collect high-quality literatures. This paper mainly interpreted the indications, treatment and rescue therapies for patients with H. pylori infection briefly, so as to provide the latest and the most optimal therapeutic regimens for clinical treatment of H. pylori infection.
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