Journal of International Translational Medicine
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Journal of International Translational Medicine
Journal of International Translational Medicine
JITM, ISSN 2227-6394
founded in 2012
Editor-in-chief:Feng Jifeng, China
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2017 Vol. 5, No. 4
Published: 01 December 2017

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Liver Cancer and DNA Methylation of Tumor Suppressor Genes: Current Situation and Prospects

LIU Yu-fei, WU Jian-qiu
Journal of International Translational Medicine, 2017, 5(4): 167-175 | doi:10.11910/2227-6394.2017.05.04.01
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Gastric cancer is one of the most common digestive cancers in clinic, with relatively high morbidity and mortality worldwide. Until now, the pathogenesis of gastric cancer is still unclear. The proposal of four new molecular subtypes for gastric cancer, namely microsatellite instability (MSI), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), chromosomal instability (CIN) and genomically stable (GS), has supplemented the istopathological subtypes effectively. It not only shows the specific genome characteristics of gastric cancer, but also is of great guiding significance in clinical selection of effective targeted treatment and in grouping of patients with gastric cancer. Studies on epidemiology and molecular subtypes of gastric cancer can provide specific therapeutic protocols and advice for the treatment of this disease, which is of great clinical significance. This study mainly reviewed the advances in the  epidemiological  studies  and  the  four  molecular  subtypes  of  gastric  cancer,  aiming  to  provide reference for the treatment of gastric cancer with different molecular subtypes.

Research Progress of Hypothermia in the Treatment of Neonatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy Hot!

WANG Fei-ying
Journal of International Translational Medicine, 2017, 5(4): 176-181 | doi:10.11910/2227-6394.2017.05.04.02
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Neonatal  hypoxic-ischemic  encephalopathy  (HIE),  a  common  disease  in  neonatal  period  with complex  pathogenesis,  often  leads  to  neonatal  death,  or  different  degree  of  brain  damage  in survivors. Therapeutic hypothermia is one of the most promising methods for the treatment of HIE in recent years, with multi-path, multi-target in neuroprotective mechanism. Although  therapeutic hypothermia  has  been  regarded  as  routine  management  method  for  resuscitation  of  neonatal  HIE in  many  developed  countries,  there  still  remains  many  problems  to  be  resolved,  such  as  patients’selection,  optimal  time  window,  cooling  methods,  duration  and  rewarming  for  therapeutic hypothermia,  and  adverse  reactions  caused  by  therapeutic  hypothermia  as  well  as  safety  and effectiveness of therapeutic hypothermia. This article mainly made a review on action mechanisms of  therapeutic  hypothermia  for  HIE,  controversy  of  therapeutic  hypothermia  in  the  treatment  of HIE, as well as key problems of therapeutic hypothermia in clinical application.

Current Status and Development of Traditional Chinese Medicine in the View of Translational Medicine Hot!

ZHAO Dan-dan
Journal of International Translational Medicine, 2017, 5(4): 182-189 | doi:10.11910/2227-6394.2017.05.04.03
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Translational medicine is a new medical concept and practice mode that reflects a kind of reform in  modern  biomedicine  mode,  represents  the  important  tendency  and  inevitable  requirements of scientific development of modern medicine, and is the natural development and extension of evidence-based  medicine.  In  recent  years,  great  achievements  have  been  made  in  translational studies  of  modern  medicine.  However,  the  connotation  and  extension  of  translational  medicine in  traditional  Chinese  Medicine  (TCM)  is  unclear.  In  view  of  the  history  and  current  status  of TCM, TCM pharmacy can be considered as translational medicine in general as TCM has always emphasized translation and focused on clinical experience, and a large amount of TCM theories are originated from the summaries and promotion of TCM clinical experience. Chinese compounds are originated from clinical requirements which reflect the TCM theories and achieve clinical efficacy,and  return  to  TCM  theories  finally,  in  which  TCM  compound  study  is  a  critical  pathway  for TCM  translational  medicine  studies.  Under  this  background,  some  thoughts  and  advice  on TCM translational medicine were proposed by the author in this study combing with the clinical related TCM studies on how to grasp the opportunity and keep up with the pace with and how to explore the  new  mode  for  translational  medicine  study  with  TCM  characteristics.  This  study  mainly reviewed the current status of translational medicine and the relationship between the development of TCM compound and translational medicine, so as to provide a scientific basis for the clinical application of TCM compounds.

Advances in the Relationships among Zinc Deficiency, Non-Coding RNAs and Esophageal Cancer

NI Yu-fei
Journal of International Translational Medicine, 2017, 5(4): 190-196 | doi:10.11910/2227-6394.2017.05.04.04
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Esophageal cancer is a common gastrointestinal malignancy in the world. With the development of medical  techniques,  including  surgery,  chemotherapy  and  radiotherapy,  some  achievements  have been obtained in the treatment of esophageal cancer, but the prognosis of patients with esophageal caner  is  still  poor. Therefore,  it  is  very  necessary  to  investigate  the  underlying  mechanisms  of esophageal  cancer  pathogenesis  and  to  seek  for  the  novel  therapeutic  targets. As  an  inevitable microelement,  zinc  (Zn)  is  important  in  maintaining  the  basic  cell  activities.  Zn  deficiency affects the occurrence and development of esophageal cancer in many ways, including regulation of  coding  gene  and  non-coding  gene  expression.  Non-coding  RNAs,  especially  micro RNAs (mi RNAs)  and  long  non-coding  RNAs  (lnc RNAs),  have  been  shown  to  participate  in  the development  and  progression  of  esophageal  cancer,  which  can  exert  regulatory  effect  on  a  series of  biological  processes  including  cell  proliferation,  cell  migration  and  invasion.  So  far,  it  is  still unclear about action mechanism of Zn-deficient as well as molecular functions of mi RNAs and lnc RNAs in esophageal cancer. Thus, in this article, the relationships among Zn deficiency, non-coding RNAs and esophageal cancer were reviewed, with the purpose of providing new strategies for early diagnosis and prognostic evaluation of esophageal cancer.

Mechanisms of Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Clinical Application of its Markers in Circulating Tumor Cells Hot!

ZHANG Zhen-lian, LI Yan, ZHAO Zhen-hui, ZHU Lin
Journal of International Translational Medicine, 2017, 5(4): 197-204 | doi:10.11910/2227-6394.2017.05.04.05
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Epithelial-mesenchymal  transition  (EMT)  is  a  process  by  which  epithelial  cells  lose  their  cell polarity and cell-cell adhesion, and gain migratory and invasive properties to become mesenchymalstem cells. It is indispensable for numerous developmental processes, and has also been implicated in wound healing, organ fibrosis and cancer metastasis. One important role of EMT in cancer is conductive to the generation of circulating tumor cells (CTCs). Although the contribution of EMT to tumor invasion has been confirmed, its role in metastasis is still controversial. In recent years, it has demonstrated that there is a correlation between the number of EMT CTCs and therapeutic outcome,  and  EMT  markers  in  CTC  analysis  might  offer  valuable  assistance  for  tumor  staging and  metastatic  evaluation.  Hence,  in  this  article,  the  mechanisms  of  EMT  and  its  role  in  cancer metastasis  as  well  as  clinical  application  of  EMT  markers  in  CTCs  were  summarized  so  as  to further  understand  the  specific  mechanisms  of  cancer  metastasis  and  potential  value  of  EMT markers in CTCs.

Caregiving Dilemma and Prevention Countermeasures of Senile People with Dementia

Editorial Board of Journal of International Translational Medicine
Journal of International Translational Medicine, 2017, 5(4): 205-211 | doi:10.11910/2227-6394.2017.05.04.06
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Dementia  is  a  syndrome,  usually  of  a  chronic  or  progressive  nature,  caused  by  a  variety  of  brain illnesses that affect memory, thinking, behaviors and capacities in activities of daily living (ADL). Dementia  mainly  affects  the  elderly.  The  older  the  age  of  the  elderly  is,  the  higher  the  risk  of dementia  will  become. The  current  problems  of  caregiving  for  senile  dementia  are  lack  of  social care  and  support  system,  and  the  tasks  of  taking  care  of  them  fall  to  their  families,  which  leads to a negative fact that family caregivers feel great pressure in their body, emotions and economy. Meanwhile, the caregiving difficulty is increasing with deterioration of dementia and this directly lowers the quality of life of senile dementia patients’ mates or children. Prevention of dementia lays on its stress on reduction of cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascular diseases, improvement of education and cognitive reserve, and increases of aerobic exercises. Additionally, policy-makers and  public  should  be  in  conscious  of  the  fact  that  dementia,  similar  to  heart  diseases,  stroke  and cancer,  can  be  prevented  by  effectively  implementing  public  health  strategies.  Improvement of  home  care  facilities, development  of  assistant  products  for  caregiving,  exchange  platform of  experience  of  family  caregiving,  establishment  of  mutual  institution  for  families  of  patients with  dementia,  improvement  of  social  security  system  and  quick  establishment  of  specialized institutions should be considered to perfect family caregiving for senile patients with dementia, so as to maintain family stability and promote social harmony.

Safety and Effectiveness of Dexmedetomidine Combined with Butorphanol in Patient-Controlled Intravenous Analgesia in Elderly Patients Treated with Proximal Femoral Nail Anti-Rotation

SHI Xue-xia, GAN Gui-fen
Journal of International Translational Medicine, 2017, 5(4): 212-216 | doi:10.11910/2227-6394.2017.05.08.07
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Objective: To observe the safety and effectiveness of dexmedetomidine combined with butorphanol in patient-control introvenous analgesia (PCIA) in elderly patients treated with proximal femoral nail anti-rotation (PFNA).
Methods: After completion of operation, patients of two groups were treated with PCIA according to different drug regimens. Patients in control group were given butorphanol 0.1mg/kg while those in experimental group were given butorphanol 0.1mg /kg plus dexmedetomidine 0.1μg/kg/h. Changes of heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), surplus pulse O2 (SpO2), visual analogue scale (VAS) score and Ramsay score at each time point (1 h, 2 h, 6 h, 12 h, 24 h after operation) were observed. Adverse reactions within 24 h and global assessment of analgesia were recorded.
Results: There was no difference between two groups regarding HR, MAP and SpO2 at each time point (P all >0.05). VAS score in experimental group was lower than that in control group (P all<0.05), and Ramsay score in experimental group was higher than that in control group 1 h, 2 h, and 6 h after operation (P all<0.05). The total rate of adverse reactions (mainly vertigo, nausea and vomiting) was 17.1% (6/35) in experimental group, prominently lower than the 40.0% (14/35) in control group (χ2=4.480, P= 0.034). The degree of satisfaction in experimental group was notably higher than that in control group (94.3% vs. 74.3%), and the difference was significant (Z=-2.024, P= 0.043).
Conclusion: Dexmedetomidine combined with butorphanol in PCIA is effective and safe in elderly patients treated with PFNA, with better analgesic effect, less adverse reactions and higher degree of satisfaction when compared with butorphanol.

Endovascular Treatment of Intracranial Unruptured Aneurysms Combined with Severe Stenosis of Proximal Carotid Artery in Single-Stage Hot!

LIU He, SUN Yong-quan, LI Tong, JIA Jian-wen, ZHONG Hong-liang, LI Ying
Journal of International Translational Medicine, 2017, 5(4): 217-222 | doi:10.11910/2227-6394.2017.05.04.08
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Introduction: Intracranial aneurysms are not rare, and endovascular treatment is one of the main options. However, when distal aneurysms combined with severe stenosis of the carotid artery exist, the treatment becomes complicated. Staging surgeries can increase the risk of cerebral ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke. 
Case report: Four patients diagnosed with severe stenosis of the carotid artery were reviewed in whom  internal  carotid  artery-posterior  communicating  artery  aneurysm,  anterior  communicating artery aneurysm, and middle cerebral artery aneurysm were found at the distal part of the lesions, respectively.  The  maximum  diameter  of  the  aneurysm  was  <5  mm. All  the  patients  underwent single-stage  endovascular  treatment  under  general  anesthesia:  carotid  angioplasty  and  stenting were  performed  first,  and  then  the  guiding  catheter  was  inserted  into  the  internal  carotid  artery through  the  stent,  after  which  embolization  of  the  intracranial  aneurysm  was  performed.  The surgeries of all four patients were successful. Brain stroke did not occur in the perioperative period. Stent  restenosis  and  recurrence  of  aneurysms  were  not  found  in  follow-up  digital  subtraction angiography.
Conclusion: These cases show that treatment of carotid artery stenosis and its distal intracranial aneurysm  during  the  same  stage  of  endovascular  operation  is  safe  and  feasible,  and  it  also  could reduce the risk of staged surgeries.
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